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Results of a new study show that cancer rates among children and adolescents are stable, but rates of certain cancers such as renal carcinomas are increasing.

This review will focus largely on the effects of systemic cytotoxic treatment on cognitive function, reflecting what has been most extensively studied in the literature.

Much of the existing research into the phenomenon commonly referred to as “chemobrain” has been descriptive, and we know enough now to identify some patients at risk for cognitive changes after a diagnosis of cancer.

With the growing number of cancer survivors, there is increased interest in understanding and preventing post-treatment sequelae that may limit full recovery to prediagnosis health.

Cognitive dysfunction during and following treatment for cancer, often referred to as “chemobrain,” is an adverse effect of cancer treatment that may interfere with patients’ ability to resume their precancer lifestyle, with subsequently reduced quality of life.

Intratumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Despite morphologic and clinical recognition of tumor heterogeneity, an understanding of it at a molecular level has only begun to emerge in recent years.

It may be necessary to broaden our concept of the malignant process beyond that of a disease to be attacked—to one that reflects a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of living systems.

In this review, we summarize biologic, pathologic, and clinical aspects of gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumors, focusing on recent advances in their treatment.

The relative abundance of new data on the biological underpinnings of neuroendocrine tumors, combined with clinical trial data supporting new treatment options, is a clear sign of progress. Yet, as is so often the case, these recent studies have generated a multitude of new and different questions.

In spite of recent encouraging developments in the setting of GI neuroendocrine tumors, many clinical questions remain to be answered and will be highlighted in this commentary.

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