DALLASA new interactive computer program, The Ethics Companion, is
currently under development to help physicians think through ethical dilemmas
in genetic testing for breast cancer, Gail Tomlinson, MD, PhD, of the University
of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, said at a poster paper at the San
"It has become clearer to us and others in the field that there
are many far-reaching ethical questions involved in undertaking genetic
testing," Dr. Tomlinson said. She added that the program is a joint
project of UT-Southwestern and Southern Methodist University's Carrie McGuire
Center for Ethics and Public Responsibility.
Once the program is fully functional, it will consist of a series of
individual cases, each of which poses a different ethical dilemma in genetics
testing for breast cancer, as well as the scientific background and ethical
concepts necessary to provide an ethics-based education for health care
professionals who handle genetic information on breast cancer risk.
The program guides the health care professional through the case studies,
to help him or her learn the processes of making ethical decisions, Dr.
Tomlinson said. Users will also be able to plug in their own cases and
work through them in a similar fashion.
Ideally, she said, the program will help users solve problems, "but
it's not going to provide definitive answers; the purpose, rather, is to
expand the user's knowledge base and help the user think about different
ramifications of possible actions."
Because of its strong educational component, the program, which is now
undergoing testing, could be used for teaching at the undergraduate level,
in medical schools, or in residency programs, she said.
In the case study Dr. Tomlinson presented, Rachel, a woman in her 20s,
wants to undergo genetic testing for breast cancer because her aunt had
breast cancer and is known to be a carrier of BRCA1. Her mother, Andrea,
doesn't want anything to do with genetic testing.
Rachel, who is engaged to be married, wants to have the test to help
her plan whether to have children early or later in life; if she knows
she is a carrier, she may choose to have children early and then undergo
If Rachel tests positive for the BRCA1 mutation, Andrea will know that
she is a carrier, but Andrea doesn't want this information. Is it ethical
to test Rachel?
In this case, the stakeholders are Rachel, Andrea, other family members,
Rachel's fiancé, and her unborn children.
The possible actions are as follows:
Work with Andrea to try to get her to consent to testing. (If this fails,
other actions must be considered.)
- Test Rachel and let her do what she wants with the results.
- Test Rachel and ask her to keep the results secret.
- Test Rachel and counsel Andrea about the results.
- Refuse to test Rachel unless Andrea consents.
The traditional ethical principles involved are as follows:
- Justice (for each stakeholder in the dilemma).
- Duty and rights (eg, the physician's loyalty to his patients and respect
for their autonomy).
- Happiness (the consequences of each action for each stakeholder).
- Virtue (eg, the decision should allow the professional to maintain
his habit of honesty and self-respect).
The user scores each ethical principle on a scale of 1 to 10 for each
possible action, eg, for the principle of happiness, each stakeholder would
receive a score for each possible action (1 = great harm; 10 = great pleasure).
The program then comes up with a calculation for each action, a "moral
landscape or map, which doesn't necessarily tell you the right answers
but tells you what your thought processes were and what you emphasized,"
Dr. Tomlinson said.