A 48-year-old man is referred for evaluation. He has a history of hypercholesterolemia and obesity. Treatment with cholesterol-lowering medication was associated with elevated liver chemistries. When the elevated liver chemistries persisted after cessation of the medication, imaging studies were obtained. Ultrasound and CT scan both revealed a heterogeneous mass in the head of the pancreas. There was dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in this area.
The patient denied abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. He had a history of heavy alcohol use. There was no history of pancreatitis. Past medical history was positive only for hypercholesterolemia. Past surgical history was significant for cholecystectomy for gallstones 10 years earlier. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory evaluation was normal except for mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed to evaluate the abnormal findings and to rule out chronic pancreatitis.
- The photograph demonstrates:
a. A duodenal ulcer
b. A pigmented lesion in the duodenum
c. A worm
d. The major papilla with the orifice impacted with mucin
- This finding is pathognomic for what condition?
a. Malignant melanoma
b. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas (IPMT)
d. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
The correct answer to question 1 is d. The endoscopic photograph reveals the typical "fish eye" appearance of the main papilla seen with intraductal neoplasia of the pancreas and bile duct.
The correct answer to question 2 is b. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas (IPMT), also known as intraductal papillary hyperplasia, mucinous ductal ectasia, mucin-producing tumor, and other names, was first reported by Ohashi and Maruyama in 1982. Since then, more than 300 cases of this rare entity have been reported worldwide.
It is characterized radiographically by cystic dilation of the main pancreatic duct or secondary branches with copious mucus secretion in the ductal lumen causing filling defects, and endoscopically by a swollen papilla extruding mucin.
The true incidence of IPMT in the population is unknown. One surgical study suggests that IPMT accounts for between 8% and 20% of pancreatic resections for malignancy. It is frequently found in men in the age range of 60 to 70 years; it is usually seen in the head of the pancreas but sometimes may involve the entire gland.