Overall, approximately 2% of patients with bladder cancer will experience a venous thromboembolism event, a rate five times higher than that in the overall population; also, such an event results in a threefold increased risk of death in patients with cancer.
Despite the higher risk of VTE in patients with bladder cancer, ironically, their risk of bleeding and anemia, and greater need for transfusion of blood products, poses an equally significant risk of morbidity and mortality, especially among those who undergo cystectomy.
Bladder neoplasms are associated with a high frequency of painless hematuria; however, when compared with the bleeding tendencies of other solid tumors, it is arguable that this comparatively high bleeding frequency is in part the result of an ascertainment bias.
Immediate adjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder significantly increased progression-free survival, according to the final results of the EORTC 30994 trial.
A reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was found to be associated with a significantly increased risk for renal and urothelial cancer, according to the results of a recently published study.