This management guide covers the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pancreatic cancer, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs), carcinoid tumors of the GI tract, adrenocortical carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma. More »
This management guide for non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) covers the symptoms, screening, diagnosis, staging, and treatment of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma of the lung. More »
This management guide covers the symptoms, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma, and thymoma from a surgical, medical, and radiation oncology approach. More »
We review the current knowledge on human yolk sac tumours (YSTs) 50years after their initial description. Their complex nomenclature and histogenesis stress the fact that they are not a discrete entity, but represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms, for which the term primitive endodermal tumours would be more appropriate, accounting for their capacity to differentiate into various extraembryonal and somatic cell types. Different histological patterns of human YSTs correlate with the developmental potential of primitive endoderm and mesenchyme, but they are also similar to some murine experimental tumours. Exceptionally, YSTs replicate the tubular structures of the human yolk sac and allantois. Endodermal somatic differentiation reproduces pulmonary, intestinal and hepatic tissues and are identical with some, embryonal-type endodermal, gastric and lung carcinomas, which are indistinguishable from YSTs. YSTs may show an overgrowth of their mesenchymal (sarcomatous) and epithelial
To review the available literature addressing the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and carcinoid tumors.|Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (January 1977-December 2011) of English-language literature using the terms gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, pancreatic neuroendocrine, carcinoid, and pancreatic islet cell tumor.|All published studies and abstracts, as well as relevant consensus guidelines, evaluating the current literature about PNETs and carcinoid tumors were included.|Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a genetically diverse group of complex malignancies with varying biological and clinical courses. Historically believed to be rare, recent epidemiologic data suggest their incidence is rising. Two of the most commonly diagnosed GEP-NETs are PNETs and carcinoid tumors. Both subtypes are well-differentiated tumors and present as low or intermediate grade. The systemic manifestations of PNETs and carcinoid
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be subdivided into carcinoid and pancreatic NETs (panNETs). Recently, two therapies have been FDA approved for progressive well-differentiated pancreatic NETs but have not been submitted for use in carcinoid tumors (Yao, Shah, Ito, et al. N Engl J Med 364:514-23, 2011; Raymond, Dahan, Raoul, et al. N Engl J Med 364:501-13, 2011). The first is sunitinib (Sutent(), Pfizer, Inc.), an orally administered, multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitor. The second targeted agent is everolimus (Afinitor(), Novartis Pharmaceuticals), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (Yao, Shah, Ito, et al. N Engl J Med 364:514-23, 2011). Both agents demonstrated improved progression-free survival but can also result in non-trivial toxicities and therefore, should only be considered in patients with progressing or symptomatic pancreatic NET. This review will discuss "new" NET therapies and provides an overview of liver
The decision for aggressive reoperation after discovery of an appendiceal carcinoid is generally based upon criteria such as size, grade, degree of involvement of the mesoappendix or the appendiceal base, lymphovascular invasion, and the presence of goblet cell or adenocarcinoid features. No guidelines currently exist for the management of perforated appendiceal carcinoids. We present a case of perforated appendiceal carcinoid that was subsequently treated with right hemicolectomy, and we review the pertinent literature.
We review here the literature on neuroendocrine neoplasms metastatic to the pituitary and present an example of the disease. Metastasis of bronchial carcinoid tumors to the sellar region are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with constant cough and headaches. She had previously been operated for carcinoidtumor of the lung. During the preoperative investigation, a CT scan of the head revealed a sellar mass. Six months after a left lower lobectomy, the sellar lesion was removed by transsphenoidal surgery. The two tumors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Both showed identical morphologic features, those of carcinoidtumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactivity for the endocrine markers, synaptophysin and chromogranin, as well as CD-56, serotonin, bombesin and vascular endothelial growth factor. The sellar neoplasm showed nuclear immunopositivity for thyroid transcription factor-1, supporting the
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the jejunum, ileum, and appendix are also collectively known as midgut carcinoids. Similar to NETs in general, the diagnosed incidence of the midgut NETs is on the rise. Their presenting symptoms vary depending on stage and primary site. Local-regional NETs often present with vague and nonspecific symptoms. Classic carcinoid syndrome is more likely to appear in patients with advanced disease. Local-regional NETs of the small bowel should be resected whenever possible. With the exception of small well-differentiated NETs of the appendix, NETs of the midgut have substantial risk of relapse after resection and need to be followed for at least 7 years.Metastatic/advanced NETs of the midgut are incurable. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Somatostatin analogs are effective in the management of carcinoid syndrome. Octreotide long-acting release has also recently been shown to delay disease progression.
Extrapulmonary poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas can originate in the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, cervix, and prostate. These high-grade malignancies are characterized by aggressive histological features (high mitotic rate, extensive necrosis, and nuclear atypia) and a poor clinical prognosis. They are infrequently associated with secretory hormonal syndromes (such as the carcinoid syndrome) and rarely express somatostatin receptors.Most poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas are locally advanced or metastatic at presentation. First-line systemic chemotherapy with a platinum agent (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide is recommended for most patients with metastatic-stage disease; however, response durations are often short. Sequential or concurrent chemoradiation is recommended for patients with loco-regional disease. In patients with localized tumors undergoing surgical resection, adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy with or without radiation) is warranted
Among new biological markers that could become useful prognostic factors for lung carcinoma, Ki-67 is a nuclear protein involved in cell proliferation regulation. Some studies have suggested an association between Ki-67 and poor survival in lung cancer patients. In order to clarify this point, we have performed a systematic review of the literature, using the methodology already described by our Group, the European Lung Cancer Working Party. In total, 37 studies, including 3983 patients, were found to be eligible. In total, 49% of the patients were considered as having a tumour positive for the expression of Ki-67 according to the authors cutoff. In all, 29 of the studies dealt with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), one with small-cell carcinoma (SCLC), two with carcinoid tumours and five with any histology. In terms of survival results, Ki-67 was a bad prognosis factor for survival in 15 studies while it was not in 22. As there was no statistical difference in quality scores
Gastric carcinoids are a rare gut endocrinoma, and only a few series dealing with limited aspects have been published. This study evaluates the present status and characteristics of gastric carcinoids in a statistically reliable series of 1,094 cases that were carefully evaluated, computerized, and analyzed by the "Gut-Pancreatic Endocrinoma Analyzing System." Routine statistical analysis was carried out on 1,011 patients, excluding 83 with atypical carcinoids, focusing on clinical manifestations, location, depth, and size of the lesions in relation to metastases, immunohistochemistry, carcinoid syndrome, serotonin activity, electron microscopy, multicarcinoid complex with type A gastritis, and postoperative outcome. A tumor size of 20 mm or less comprised 60.8% of the series, with a metastasis rate of 15.1%, and depth of invasion to the submucosa occupied 53.8%, with a metastasis rate of 13.2%. Carcinoid syndrome was encountered in 4.0% of the patients. Elevated serotonin activity
The clinical findings of a population-based colorectal tumor registry have been analyzed to determine elements of supporting or not supporting the existence of different types of large bowel cancer. Age-specific incidence rate of the 409 registered patients rose sharply with increasing age in all segments of the large bowel; however, regarding left colon and rectum, the male: female ratio showed a marked male preponderance, more evident in the more advanced age groups. Histopathology, studied in 87% of patients, revealed adenocarcinoma as the most frequent feature; however, adenocarcinoma with concomitant adenoma (i.e., presumably arising in adenoma) was observed in 14.3% of cancers of the left colon, in 17.7% of rectal tumors, but in only 5.7% of neoplasms of the proximal colon (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01, respectively, vs. left colon and rectum). Some histological features (carcinoid and mucinous carcinoma) were observed in right-side tumors only. Analysis of the familial