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Carcinoid Tumors

Carcinoid Tumors

Tumors of neuroendocrine origin arising from the pancreas, luminal gastrointestinal tract, and other tissues differ greatly in their malignant potential.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of epithelial tumors that can originate from almost any organ derived from the primitive endoderm, including pancreatic islet cells (pancreatic NETs), diffuse neuroendocrine cells distributed throughout the gut (gastrointestinal carcinoids), the respiratory epithelium (bronchial carcinoids).

Despite a decreasing incidence in the United States, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a major clinical problem, with approximately 30,000 new cases each year. The diagnosis of SCLC is usually not difficult. The Veterans Administration Lung Study Group (VALSG) staging system is less accurate than the American Joint Committee of Cancer tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system (7th edition) at predicting survival in SCLC, especially in lower stage disease. Surgery has not played a major part in the management of SCLC, but emerging data suggest that resection may have a role in earlier stage disease. While the frontline treatment of SCLC has not changed significantly in the past decade, newer agents that are currently being investigated provide hope for better treatment of relapsed/refractory disease for the future.

PET paired with a variety of radiotracers offers insights into the metabolic, DNA, and protein pathways.

Many patients with advanced cancer undergo a wasting syndrome associated with cancer anorexia/cachexia and asthenia. In defining these terms a bit further, anorexia is associated with a marked loss of appetite and/or an aversion to food. Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with loss of body mass, including lean body mass, associated with a disease. In a study that looked at symptoms in cancer patients being entered on a palliative care service, anorexia/cachexia and asthenia were more common problems than were pain or dyspnea. Patients who exhibit such symptoms generally have a short survival, respond poorly to cytotoxic agents, and suffer from increased toxicity from these agents.

Carcinoma of an unknown primary site is a common clinical syndrome, accounting for approximately 3% of all oncologic diagnoses. Patients in this group are heterogeneous, having a wide variety of clinical presentations and pathologic findings. A patient should be considered to have carcinoma of an unknown primary site when a tumor is detected at one or more metastatic sites, and routine evaluation (see below) fails to define a primary tumor site.

Despite the existence of excellent screening and preventive strategies, colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains a major public health problem in Western countries. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that in 2009, 146,970 people will be diagnosed with CRC, and 49,920 will die of the disease. CRC is the third most common type of cancer in both sexes (after prostate and lung cancers in men and lung and breast cancers in women) and the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States.

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