RESEARCH REPORT Leah Lawrence Women diagnosed with endometrial cancer at age 50 or younger had a fourfold increased risk for a subsequent colorectal cancer diagnosis, according to a historical cohort study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
REVIEW ARTICLE Francesco Cellini, Vincenzo Valentini;ONCOLOGY Vol. 26 No. 8 The preferred integrated treatment modality for locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative radio(chemo)therapy followed by total mesorectal excision, though certain aspects of this standard are still debated.
Patients who have chronic constipation may be at increased risk for colorectal cancer and benign neoplasms, researchers reported at the American College of Gastroenterology 77th Annual Scientific Meeting. In addition, new colonoscopy surveillance... More »
CT colonography is a better screening test than optical colonoscopy (OC), according to a new study published in the May Radiology print issue. Using meta-analysis of studies done over a 15 year period, authors found that the sensitivity of CT... More »
Statins are associated with a slight reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer, according to the results of a recent meta-analysis presented at the 2010 American College of Gastroenterology meeting. Investigators at the University of Michigan at Ann... More »
Adult stem cells are present in most postnatal tissues of mammals. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover depend on the functional capacity of stem cells for lifelong maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Adult stem cells are also required for the regeneration of tissues in response to injury as in, for example, the regeneration of skeletal muscle. In addition to its function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, adult stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of various types of cancers including
Although experimental studies have shown lipoprotein(a) antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects, the association of lipoprotein(a) levels with cancer in population studies remains elusive and poorly documented. The aim of this study was to analy
Decision making for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer is based on the TNM system. It is well known that prognosis worsens with higher pN classification, and several recent studies propose superiority of the lymph node ratio (ln ratio) to the TNM system. Therefore, we compared the prognosis of ln ratio to TNM system in our stage III colon cancer patients.|Decision making for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer is based on the TNM system. It is well known that prognosis worsens with
The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefo
The RAS-association domain family, commonly referred to as RASSF, is a family of 10 members (RASSF1-10) implicated in a variety of key biological processes, including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and microtubule stability. Furthermore, RASSFs have been implicated in tumorigenesis and several family members are now thought to be tumor suppressors. As opposed to the KRAS oncogene, for which mutational activation is frequent in colorectalcancer (CRC), RASSFs are found to be silenced mainly by aberrant promoter methylation. In particular, RASSF1A, RASSF2 and RASSF5 methylation has been associated with CRC development, though the mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. This review focus on the current knowledge of RASSF inactivation in CRC, particularly RASSF1A, and on the implications RASSFs may have as potential biomarkers and for the development of new targeted therapies for CRC.
Chemokines and their receptors play key roles in leukocyte trafficking and are also implicated in cancer metastasis. We previously demonstrated that forced expression of CXCR3 promotes colon cancer metastasis preferentially to the draining lymph nodes (LNs), with poor prognosis. Using clinical colorectalcancer (CRC) samples, here, we show that expressions of CXCR3 and CXCR4 are significantly higher in metastatic foci within LNs and liver compared to primary tumors, whereas ligands for CXCR3 and CXCR4 are not. We also have demonstrated that some human CRC cell lines constitutively express both CXCR3 and CXCR4, and that activation of CXCR3 strengthens the CXCR4-mediated cell migration in vitro in a synergistic manner. By constructing SW620 cell lines with reduced expression of CXCR3 and/or CXCR4 using microRNA, we investigated in vivo metastatic activities in a mouse rectal transplantation model. Six weeks after inoculation, CXCR3-, CXCR4-, and CXCR3/CXCR4 double-knockdowns
The objective of the current prospective, multicenter, international study was to trace the incidence and severity of acute oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXLIPN) and to determine its clinical pattern. The authors also specifically tested whether patients who had more symptoms of acute OXLIPN eventually would develop a more severe chronic, cumulative form of OXLIPN.|One hundred seventy patients (mean standard deviation age, 63.7 8.7 years) who were scheduled to receive either combined leucovorin, 5-fluoruracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or combined capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) for metastatic colorectalcancer were monitored prospectively at baseline and were followed in 4 European sites. The incidence of hyperexcitability symptoms secondary to acute OXLIPN was assessed by using a descriptive questionnaire (yes/no question) at each clinical evaluation. Motor and neurosensory criteria according to version 3 of the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity
Colorectalcancer (CRC) prognosis and survival are strictly related to the development of distant metastases. New targeted therapies have increased patient survival, but the objective response rate is still very limited, partially because of a traditional focus on designing treatment according to the molecular profile of the primary tumor regardless the diversity between the primary tumor and metastases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of molecular heterogeneity during metastatic progression and its potential impact on clinical treatment.|The authors analyzed v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) codon 12 mutations, the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) thymine to adenine substitution at codon 1788, and tumor protein 53 (p53) mutations and investigated promoter methylation of Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 protein (RASSF1a), E-cadherin, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16INK4a) in 101
Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) is a known tumor suppressor that regulates the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. The role of PTCH1 in colon carcinogenesis, however, is controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate epigenetic modifications of PTCH1 in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest precursor lesion of colorectalcancer (CRC). Using laser-capture microdissection (LCM), a pure population of ACF epithelial cells was isolated and studied. The inherent protein expression levels of SHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry for 405 ACF, including 54 dysplastic ACF (d-ACF) and 351 non-dysplastic ACF (n-ACF). The mRNA levels and methylation status of PTCH1 were also determined in 54 d-ACF and 96 n-ACF. Our data showed that the expression of SHH, SMO and GLI1 was significantly up-regulated in d-ACF, compared to n-ACF. Also, the mRNA and protein levels of PTCH1 were lower in d-ACF than n-ACF. Using MSP or MS-HRM, PTCH1
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.