RESEARCH REPORT Leah Lawrence Women diagnosed with endometrial cancer at age 50 or younger had a fourfold increased risk for a subsequent colorectal cancer diagnosis, according to a historical cohort study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
REVIEW ARTICLE Francesco Cellini, Vincenzo Valentini;ONCOLOGY Vol. 26 No. 8 The preferred integrated treatment modality for locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative radio(chemo)therapy followed by total mesorectal excision, though certain aspects of this standard are still debated.
Certain patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at heightened risk for the development of colorectal cancer. But researchers have not yet been able to discover markers that can identify these patients. More »
Two new DNA-based tests could noninvasively detect colon cancer, but it is unlikely they will replace CT colonography, according to experts. If anything, the tests could replace the fecal occult blood test currently in use. More »
A growing body of evidence supports the use of CT colonography for colon cancer screening and a U.S. panel should reverse its decision to not endorse the procedure, according to the CT Colonography Coalition. More »
A 65-year-old man, who was lost to follow-up after abdominal-perineal resection for rectal adenocarcinoma 9 months earlier, presents with progressively worsening neurological symptoms, including bilateral hearing loss, dizziness, gait disturbance,... More »
The American College of Radiology and the CTC Coalition have issued a joint statement urging Congress to pass the Virtual Screening for Colorectal Cancer Act of 2010. HR 5461 would require CMS to extend Medicare benefits to include CT colonography as... More »
CT colonography can pinpoint cancerous colorectal segments more accurately than colonoscopy, according to Italian investigators. They say virtual, not optical, colonoscopy should be the gold standard for the preoperative staging of colorectal cancer. More »
Angry backers of CT colonography for colorectal cancer screening are regrouping after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services repulsed their efforts to secure Medicare coverage for the procedure. More »
Adult stem cells are present in most postnatal tissues of mammals. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover depend on the functional capacity of stem cells for lifelong maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Adult stem cells are also required for the regeneration of tissues in response to injury as in, for example, the regeneration of skeletal muscle. In addition to its function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, adult stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of various types of cancers including
Although experimental studies have shown lipoprotein(a) antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects, the association of lipoprotein(a) levels with cancer in population studies remains elusive and poorly documented. The aim of this study was to analy
Decision making for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer is based on the TNM system. It is well known that prognosis worsens with higher pN classification, and several recent studies propose superiority of the lymph node ratio (ln ratio) to the TNM system. Therefore, we compared the prognosis of ln ratio to TNM system in our stage III colon cancer patients.|Decision making for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer is based on the TNM system. It is well known that prognosis worsens with
The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefo
Estrogen receptor (ER)- signaling has generally been implicated in protection against colorectalcancer. The ER- gene cytosine-adenine (ESR2 CA) repeat polymorphism was reported to be associated with colorectalcancer, although showing contradicting results probably caused by ethnicity or age distribution of the subjects. We investigated the association between this polymorphism and the colorectalcancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan (685 cases/778 controls), including only subjects younger than 75. The effect modifications of the body mass index (BMI) and isoflavone intake were also examined. ESR2 CA repeat polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction using fluorescein-labeled primers. CA repeat alleles were classified into short (S) allele (<22 repeats) and long (L) allele ( 22 repeats). Subjects were divided into three genotype groups (SS/SL/LL). The risk of colon cancer, but not of rectal cancer, was increased with an increasing number of
Cancer genome sequencing efforts are leading to the identification of genetic mutations in many types of malignancy. However, the majority of these genetic alterations have been considered random passengers that do not directly contribute to tumorigenesis. We have previously conducted a soft agar-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen within colorectalcancer (CRC) candidate driver genes (CAN-genes) using a karyotypically diploid hTERT- and CDK4-immortalized human colonic epithelial cell (HCEC) model and discovered that depletion of 65 of the 151 CAN-genes enhanced anchorage-independent growth in HCECs with ectopic expression of K-Ras(V12) and/or TP53 knockdown. We now constructed an interaction map of the confirmed CAN-genes with CRC non-CAN-genes and screened for functional tumor suppressors. Remarkably, depletion of 15 out of 25 presumed passenger genes that interact with confirmed CAN-genes (60%) promoted soft agar growth in HCECs with TP53 knockdown compared to only 7 out of 55
Intratumoral heterogeneity arises through the evolution of genetically diverse subclones during tumor progression. However, it remains unknown whether cells within single genetic clones are functionally equivalent. By combining DNA copy number alteration (CNA) profiling, sequencing, and lentiviral lineage tracking, we followed the repopulation dynamics of 150 single lentivirus-marked lineages from 10 human colorectal cancers through serial xenograft passages in mice. CNA and mutational analysis distinguished individual clones and showed that clones remained stable upon serial transplantation. Despite this stability, the proliferation, persistence, and chemotherapy tolerance of lentivirally marked lineages were variable within each clone. Chemotherapy promoted the dominance of previously minor or dormant lineages. Thus, apart from genetic diversity, tumor cells display inherent functional variability in tumor propagation potential, which contributes to both cancer growth and therapy
Cancer-associated inflammation has been identified as a key determinant of disease progression and survival in colorectalcancer. In particular, it has been consistently reported that both the local and systemic inflammatory responses play an important role in determining outcome in colorectalcancer. Given the importance of cancer-associated inflammation, up-regulation or attenuation of these respective inflammatory responses may be important for progression and survival in colorectalcancer. Recent work has focused on the inter-relationships between the tumour and these key inflammatory processes. In particular, tumour necrosis has been reported to be associated with decreased local inflammatory infiltrate and with elevated markers of systemic inflammation in colorectalcancer and has been proposed as a potential link between the systemic and local inflammatory responses. Thus there is increasing interest in the potential biochemical mediators of this link. In this review we examine
Diet and lifestyle influence colorectal adenoma recurrence. The role of dietary supplement use in colorectal adenoma recurrence remains controversial. In this prospective cohort study, we examined the association between dietary supplement use, total colorectal adenoma recurrence and advanced adenoma recurrence. Colorectal adenoma cases (n = 565) from a former case-control study, recruited between 1995 and 2002, were prospectively followed until 2008. Adenomas with a diameter of 1 cm and/or (tubulo)villous histology and/or with high grade dysplasia and/or 3 adenomas detected at the same colonic examination were considered advanced adenomas. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dietary supplement users (use of any supplement during the past year) compared to nonusers and colorectal adenoma recurrence were calculated using stratified Cox proportional hazard models for counting processes and were adjusted for age, sex, educational level and number of
Five Steps to Improving Patient Access Judy Capko, May 21, 2013 Patient access is getting increased attention through reform initiatives. Here are five steps you can take to make sure patients get appropriate access to care in your office.