C. Parathormone (PTH)
D. Parathyroid carcinoma
Parathyroid carcinomas are unusual tumors. The tumor appears to affect adult men and women almost in equal proportions.
Clinically, the presence of marked hypercalcemia appears to be a common denominator for these tumors. Since parathyroid adenoma may also present with similar symptomatology, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma is essentially a histological diagnosis.
The treatment of choice for patients with parathyroid carcinomas is complete surgical resection. Recurrences of these tumors usually occur within 3 years after initial diagnosis. Metastatic disease can develop to lymph nodes, lung, and liver.
1. Wang CA, Gaz RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg. 1985;149:522-527.