Since the development of first-line cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin almost 3 decades ago, there have not been major advances in the treatment of this disease.
Hyperglycemia is a common challenge during cancer treatment and palliation. In addition, many patients with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes undergoing cancer treatment develop iatrogenic hyperglycemia with unique features.
Here we discuss the evolution of standard therapy for rectal cancer patients and the use of preoperative CRT for the treatment of locally advanced disease. Treatment schemes that have attempted to broaden the horizons of standard therapy include the use of induction chemotherapy and “watch-and-wait” approaches.
More research is needed to define the optimal radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimen for male urethral carcinoma. However, modern chemoradiation is a feasible treatment option for motivated men with urethral carcinoma who want to preserve their organs.
Despite improved understanding of the molecular features of renal tumors, increasing expertise in surgical management of localized renal cancers, and multiple effective systemic therapies for metastatic cancer, mortality from renal cell carcinoma remains largely unchanged.