The goal of staging is to determine whether a lymphoma is limited to the CNS (primary CNS lymphoma) or if it is also present elsewhere in the body (systemic lymphoma with CNS involvement) (Table 2). Only about 4% of patients with presumed primary CNS lymphoma are found to have occult non-CNS involvement. While the yield of staging is relatively low, it is important because there are differences in the therapeutic management for these two distinct subgroups of patients.
In order to move forward quickly with treatment, some elements of the staging workup may be initiated prior to the establishment of a diagnosis of a suspected CNS lymphoma. In addition to evaluating the extent of disease, ideally by fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (PET)/CT (see below), concomitant evaluation of prognostic factors—including HIV status, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis—is routinely performed. The ocular system is an extension of the CNS and there is a relatively high risk of concomitant ocular (vitreous) involvement of lymphoma. Thus, an ophthalmologic examination, including a slit lamp examination, is performed in patients with newly diagnosed CNS lymphoma (Figure 2), even if they have no visual symptoms. If ocular involvement is noted, ophthalmologic reevaluation needs to be part of all subsequent restaging.
Extra-CNS imaging is most often performed using PET or PET/CT, which have been shown to be more sensitive than nonmetabolic imaging studies. Similar to the CNS, the testicles are another relatively immune-privileged location. Thus, in male patients, testicular ultrasound can be considered—although it is uncertain what additional sensitivity or specificity this study adds. In our practice, we limit its use to clinical scenarios where there is suspicion because of findings on radiographic imaging or clinical examination.
Bone marrow biopsy is also often performed to search for occult lymphoma. Many clinical trials require its inclusion. The literature is not clear regarding its benefit for detecting lymphoma not identified via other staging evaluations. Although a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are commonly performed in our own practice and in other academic settings, this practice can arguably be challenged. However, the risks of inadvertently moving forward with an inappropriate therapeutic regimen may be viewed as greater than the risks of the bone marrow biopsy.
To summarize, the essential components of staging include HIV status evaluation, ophthalmologic examination, and whole-body PET/CT. Staging in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients is essentially the same; however, in the immunocompromised population, there will be greater concern about the possibility of there being more than one underlying cause for clinical/radiographic findings, particularly if such findings are multiple. Additional studies in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients may be considered for either staging or prognostication; these include CSF analysis, serum LDH level, bone marrow biopsy, and testicular ultrasound. Which of these studies are utilized varies among practitioners, institutions, and countries. While not a component of diagnostic or staging studies, the creatinine clearance is an essential parameter that helps establish the feasibility of utilizing certain therapeutic regimens, including high-dose methotrexate, the cornerstone of primary CNS lymphoma treatment (since methotrexate is renally cleared).
Contemporary studies of large patient cohorts and epidemiologic studies have shed additional light on outcomes in patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Neither the epidemiologic reports from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) nor the two most frequently utilized prognostic systems address potential differences in outcomes between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The CBTRUS reveals that young age is associated with superior outcomes. In the pediatric population (≤ 19 years old), which has a very low incidence of primary CNS lymphoma, survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years range from 83% to 88%, 74% to 78%, and 66% to 73%, respectively. Among patients aged 20 to 64 years, survival rates range from 40% to 60%, 29% to 37%, and 23% to 27%. In elderly patients (65 years of age or older), outcomes are even worse, with fewer than half of patients alive at 1 year. In population-based studies, estimated rates for survival at 1, 5, and 10 years in this age cohort are 33% to 48%, 13% to 24%, and 10% to 13%, respectively. Retrospective evaluation of a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for primary CNS lymphoma demonstrated that response rate and overall survival were only affected by the treatments used and not by factors intrinsic to the patients.
Two widely accepted prognostic classification systems are used in primary CNS lymphoma. These employ various criteria (Table 3); however, age and performance status are included in both scoring systems. The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) developed a prognostication system in which a number of factors significantly associated with survival on multivariate analyses are awarded points (1 point for each unfavorable factor). The aggregate score can then be used to estimate prognosis. Unfavorable factors are: age > 60 years; impaired Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2–4; elevated serum LDH level; elevated CSF protein level; and involvement of deep brain structures, specifically the periventricular regions, basal ganglia, corpus callosum, brainstem, and/or cerebellum. Two-year survival estimates for all patients are divided into three groups and range from 15% to 80%. In a subgroup analysis of patients who received high-dose methotrexate, the outcomes improved—ranging between 24% and 85%, depending on prognostic factors—reflecting in part the selection bias inherent in an analysis of the influence of treatment choices in a retrospective cohort of patients. A second easy-to-use system, developed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, incorporates only age (< 50 years vs ≥ 50 years) and Karnofsky Performance Scale score (< 70 vs ≥ 70). As with the IELSG system, patients are classified into three categories, with median overall survival ranging from 8.5 years in the best category to 1.1 years in the worst. Median failure-free survival ranges from 2.0 years to 0.6 years.
- Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a malignancy most frequently encountered in elderly, HIV-positive, and posttransplant populations.
- Prebiopsy administration of corticosteroids may limit the diagnostic yield of the biopsy and thus should be avoided.
- Staging is performed to evaluate for the presence of extra-CNS and ocular involvement of lymphoma.
- Age and performance status are the most reliable prognostic markers across prognostic systems.
Although in extra-CNS lymphoma, protein expression as detected via immunohistochemistry can be predictive of outcome, no clear histologic biomarker has yet been established for primary CNS lymphoma. BCL-2 is present in most primary CNS lymphomas. BCL-6 is also found in many primary CNS lymphomas, although reports on its prognostic value are conflicting.[22,23] The serum LDH level is a validated prognostic marker and serves as a component of the IELSG prognostication classification. Other serum biomarkers, such as absolute lymphocyte count, are under investigation. The presence of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages has been reported in primary CNS lymphoma; however, the clinical significance of this finding has yet to be elucidated. In EBV-positive primary CNS lymphoma, increased expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 has also been noted within tumor cells. Novel PD1 and PD2 gene rearrangements have been described in primary CNS lymphoma.
In addition to tumor-specific factors, markers of the overall systemic immune profile can also serve prognostic purposes. In multivariate analyses, low absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis is associated with shorter overall survival. A high neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio is associated with similar findings. Although these markers are not included in formal prognostication systems, they can influence clinicians’ perceptions of prognosis. The prognosis of immunocompromised patients with primary CNS lymphoma has long been thought to be worse than that of immunocompetent patients. Most clinical trials have excluded immunocompromised patients, which has limited our understanding of this population. Retrospective studies, however, have recently provided support for similar outcomes in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive primary CNS lymphoma populations in the modern era.
Primary CNS lymphoma is a rare primary CNS tumor associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. With an increasing incidence in the growing elderly population, its prevalence may grow. Familiarity with the clinical and radiographic presentation will help facilitate the initial diagnostic workup, decreasing the potential for nondiagnostic biopsies. It will also allow for rapid evaluation for evidence of extra-CNS disease—which, if present, would classify the lymphoma’s CNS involvement as secondary, altering therapeutic management. While the risk of relapse is thought to diminish with longer disease-free intervals, there are reports of recurrence many years out.[28,29] A firm understanding of prognosis will allow for optimal counseling of patients and will influence clinical decision making.
Financial Disclosure: The authors have no significant financial interest in or other relationship with the manufacturer of any product or provider of any service mentioned in this article.
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