Recent improvements in our understanding of the biology of colorectal cancer have led to the identification of several important prognostic and predictive markers of disease-associated risk and treatment response for the individual patient.
Value in its essence is preference or outcome divided by cost, or described in terms of a mathematical equation, value = outcome (preference)/cost. It follows, then, that value is increased by holding outcome constant and reducing cost, or by improving outcome while holding cost constant.
Sexual and urinary morbidities resulting from treatment of pelvic malignancies are common. Awareness of these complications is critical in order to properly counsel patients regarding potential side effects and to facilitate prompt diagnosis and management.