Immunotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Immunotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma is an epithelial
malignancy that appears to be slowly increasing in incidence. It is
estimated that 30,600 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed
annually in the United States, and 12,000 deaths result from this
tumor each year. Since 1935, the rate of increase of renal cell
carcinoma has slowed somewhat but approximates 2% per annum.
Histologically, renal cancer encompasses a heterogeneous group of
diseases. The most common histologic type is clear cell cancer (Figure
1a), which accounts for approximately 75% of renal carcinomas.
Papillary tumors (Figure 1b) occur
in only 15% of patients, and other malignancies, such as sarcomatoid,
collecting duct, and medullary tumors, develop in fewer than 5%.
Recent molecular genetic studies have identified mutations of the von
Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene in patients with clear cell carcinoma. It
appears that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may be under
the regulation of the VHL protein product. Mutant forms of this
protein, such as are found in clear cell cancer, may be associated
with enhanced expression of VEGF. The vascular nature of renal
tumors, together with these observations, suggest that methods to
inhibit VEGF expression may be of therapeutic interest.
In addition, some renal tumors express c-met. This
proto-oncogene codes for a protein that functions as a receptor for
hepatocyte growth factor.
These kinds of studies have provided insights into the genetic
defects occurring in renal cancer and may lead to new treatment
approaches. Current therapeutic approaches in patients with advanced
disease continue to involve surgery and various forms of
Figure 2 shows the distribution by
stage of patients with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma. Close to
half of patients (45%) have localized disease at diagnosis. However,
approximately 30% of individuals have metastatic disease, and another
25% have locally advanced tumors with lymph node and/or local organ involvement.
In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, 3- to 5-year
survival rates are less than 5%. Outcomes differ in subsets of
individuals with advanced disease, however. In patients who have
synchronous metastatic disease or who develop metastases within 12
months of surgery, the 2-year survival rate approaches 0%. In
contrast, patients in whom metastatic disease develops more than 2
years from diagnosis have a 5-year survival rate of over 20%. In
addition, various prognostic factors play an important role in
determining therapeutic outcomes in patients with metastatic renal
cancer. The most important factor identified to date is performance status.
Rationale for Use
The possibility that the immune response may control the progression
of cancer was suggested over 40 years ago. In patients with renal
cancer, three observations have provided a rationale for the use of immunotherapy.
Spontaneous RegressionThe first observation, spontaneous
regression, was recognized originally in patients in whom synchronous
metastatic disease regressed after removal of the primary tumor.
Recent reviews suggest that this phenomenon is very uncommon.
In addition, it has been observed that pulmonary metastases may
undergo regression in a subset of patients with metastatic renal
cancer. In two trials, one conducted by Oliver and colleagues and
the second by the Canadian Urologic Group, approximately 5% to 7%
of patients had transient partial regressions of pulmonary nodules
that were unrelated to therapy.
T-CellMediated Immune ResponsesThe second
observation is the presence of a T-lymphocytemediated immune
response in patients with renal cancer. Immunohistologic examination
of renal tumors demonstrates infiltration by T-lymphocytes (Figure
3), as well as macrophages. In approximately 25% of
patients, these tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are cytolytic and/or
produce cytokines in response to autologous tumor in a major
histocompatibility complex (MHC)restricted fashion. Recent
studies have attempted to define the antigens recognized by these T-lymphocytes.
Clinical Responses to Biological AgentsThe last
observation is the occurrence of clinical responses in patients
receiving biological agents, such as the cytokines. The cytokines
used have included the interleukin and interferon families, as well
as the colony-stimulating factors, such as granulocyte-macrophage
colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim- [Leukine, Prokine]),
and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF).
Of the interleukin family, recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHu-IL-2,
aldesleukin [Proleukin]) is the predominant agent used in patients
with renal cell carcinoma. This protein is a growth factor that
enhances the proliferation and function of T-lymphocytes.
In view of the T-lymphocyte population found in renal tumors, this
cytokine was studied in kidney cancer patients. A recent review of
clinical results in over 1,700 patients (Table
1) suggests that regression rates in individuals receiving
rHu-IL-2 are approximately 15% to 16%.
Three schedules have been used: a high-dose intravenous bolus
approach, continuous IV infusion, and subcutaneous administration. In
patients receiving high-dose intravenous rHu-IL-2, the complete
regression rate was approximately 5%, whereas in those given the
other regimens, this frequency tended to be somewhat lower
(approximately 2% to 3%). In addition, the complete responses in
patients receiving high-dose rHu-IL-2 appeared to be durable in many
instances. Overall, however, clinical results did not appear to
differ significantly with different methods or schedules of
Randomized TrialIn order to compare these approaches,
randomized clinical trials are necessary, since prognostic factors
can significantly influence the outcome in renal cancer patients. A
recent National Cancer Institute (NCI) randomized trial compared
high-dose, intravenous-bolus rHu-IL-2 (720,000 IU/kg every 8 hours
for 15 doses) with a lower-dose bolus (72,000 IU/kg every 8 hours for
15 doses) schedule in over 200 patients. The overall response
rates were 19% and 10% in the high- and low-dose groups,
respectively, with no differences in median response duration or
median survival between the two groups. Currently, the NCI is
conducting a second trial to compare high-dose intravenous rHu-IL-2,
a low-dose intravenous regimen, and subcutaneous rHu-IL-2.
A second cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of renal
cancer is interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A). This pleiotropic
protein has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activities.
A recent review of over 1,500 patients (Table
2) suggested that tumor regression occurs in 12% to 15% of
patients following administration of interferon alfa. However,
response rates may vary somewhat between the interferon
preparations, ranging from 12% to 18%. Complete responses occur in
2% to 5% of patients and are generally seen in individuals with
The optimal therapeutic dose of interferon is not well defined, but
appears to be between 5 and 10 MU/m² administered as a
subcutaneous injection 3 to 5 days weekly.
Randomized TrialsUnlike rHu-IL-2, randomized trials have been
conducted in which interferon-alfa has been compared with other
approaches. These include comparisons with
non-cytokinecontaining regimens and/or regimens containing
The studies of greatest interest (Table 3)
are those reported in a preliminary fashion by Pyrhönen et
al and Ritchie et al. Pyrhönen et al conducted a
trial in approximately 160 patients with metastatic disease who
received either interferon-alfa and vinblastine or vinblastine alone.
This trial detected significant differences in response rates in
patients treated with interferon-alfa plus vinblastine compared with
vinblastine alone (16.5% vs 2.5%). Median survival durations also
differed significantly between the two groups (15.8 vs 8.8 months).
These results suggest that interferon as a single agent may enhance
survival since the clinical activity of vinblastine is minimal.
Ritchie et al compared renal cancer patients receiving
interferon-alfa (10 MU subcutaneously three times weekly) with those
receiving methoxyprogesterone (300 mg/d). This study, which involved
over 330 patients, was closed early because of differences in median,
1-, and 2-year survival rates. Clinical results in patients treated
with interferon-alfa were significantly better than results in
patients given methoxyprogesterone. In patients with measurable
disease, interferon-alfa produced responses in 13% and
methoxyprogesterone in 7%. This study concluded that interferon-alfa
significantly enhances survival in patients with metastatic renal
A third trial that was somewhat smaller than the latter two studies
did not demonstrate a significant improvement in survival but the
trends were suggestive. Thus, the findings of these trials
suggest that interferon-alfa may enhance survival in patients with
metastatic renal cell cancer, although the effect appears to be modest.