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UFT Plus or Minus Calcium Folinate for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Older Patients

UFT Plus or Minus Calcium Folinate for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Older Patients

ABSTRACT: Two studies were carried out to determine the activity and evaluate the toxicity of oral chemotherapy with uracil and tegafur in a 4:1 molar ratio (UFT) plus or minus calcium folinate in elderly patients with advanced colorectal cancer. In one study, 106 patients received a fixed dose of UFT 400 mg/day in two daily doses every 12 hours continuously, plus calcium folinate 45 mg/day administered in three divided doses every 8 hours continuously. In study 2, calcium folinate was omitted, and the dose of UFT was increased to 400 mg/m²/day in two daily doses administered every 12 hours continuously to 95 patients. Treatments for both studies were administered until grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity occurred or disease progressed. The response rate among the 96 available patients in study 1 was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 27%); 41 patients (43%) achieved an objective response or stable disease. Overall survival was 13.7 months with a statistically significant difference between patients with no progressive disease and patients with progressive disease (P < .01). In study 2, 62 of 95 patients have now been evaluated for response. The response rate was 21% (95% CI, 13% to 30%); 38 patients (61%) experienced an objective response or stable disease. The overall survival for study 2 has not yet been evaluated. Toxicity was generally mild, consisting of grade 3 nausea/vomiting (6% in study 1 and 2% in study 2), grade 3 or grade 4 diarrhea (11% in study 1 and 7% in study 2), plus one case of grade 3 mucositis in study 1. These findings suggest that chemotherapy with UFT (with or without modulation with calcium folinate) is feasible for elderly patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. [ONCOLOGY 7(Suppl 3):35-40, 1999]


Introduction

An intravenous, modulated, bolus 5-fluorouracil
(5-FU)-based regimen is the standard treatment for colorectal cancer.
According to a meta-analysis, overall response rates are 19% to 23%,
and median survival is 10.7 to 11.5 months.[1,2] According to our
experience, overall response rates are 19.2% to 25.7%, and median
survival is 10.6 to 14.3 months.[3,4] Several studies suggest that
the alternative therapy of continuous-infusion 5-FU increases
response rate,[5] possibly due to a higher dose intensity and longer
exposure of tumor cells to this drug, which has a short half-life (£
11 minutes) when administered as a bolus infusion.
Continuous-infusion 5-FU also has a better toxicity profile than
bolus infusion, and a recently published meta-analysis has shown a
small but significant improvement in survival with this regimen.[5]
Nevertheless, continuous infusion necessitates a subcutaneous port, a
portable infusion pump, frequent hospital visits, weekly complete
blood cell counts, and toxicity and treatment costs that are not negligible.

These limitations are especially important in the elderly. Elderly
patients do not tolerate chemotherapy as well as younger patients,
and concomitant medical conditions may preclude certain treatments.
Furthermore, patients 70 years of age or older are often
insufficiently staged and treated.[6] By the year 2000, it is
estimated that 70% of cancer cases will occur in patients over 65
years old,[7] making it desirable to identify a more tolerable and
nontoxic chemotherapy that exhibits at least comparable activity to
continuous-infusion 5-FU.

Several studies carried out in Japan have proved the activity of the
oral fluoropyrimidine agent, uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of
4:1 [UFT]), in colorectal cancer.[8-10] In Europe, Malik et al[11]
demonstrated a response rate of 16.6% using UFT alone. Recently, in
the United States and Europe, calcium folinate modulation of UFT
yielded improved results, producing response rates of 42% and
39%.[12-14] The continuous oral administration of UFT
pharmacokinetically simulates delivery of protracted 5-FU by
continuous intravenous infusion, making this oral therapy a possible
substitute for intravenous chemotherapy. Based on these data, the
Gastrointestinal Tumor Therapy (TTD) Spanish Cooperative Group
initiated a study (study 1) of UFT plus calcium folinate modulation.
Because the results suggested that modulation is not necessary when
5-FU is administered as a continuous infusion at the maximum
tolerated dose,[15-18] a second study (study 2) with UFT alone was organized.

Patients and Methods

Enrollment Criteria

From September 1994 to September 1998, the Gastrointestinal Tumor
Therapy Spanish Cooperative Group performed two consecutive studies
involving elderly patients with advanced colorectal cancer. The final
results of study 1 (N = 106) and preliminary results from study 2 (N
= 95) are hereby presented. Eligibility criteria were similar in the
two trials: age ³ 72 years, confirmed
colorectal adenocarcinoma, no resectable or metastatic tumor,
measurable disease (at least one lesion with dimensions of 2 × 2
cm at the longest diameter), a Karnofsky performance status of ³
60%, and no other malignancies except skin basocellular carcinoma or
in situ carcinoma of the cervix. Patients could not have received
prior systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Patients who had
received adjuvant therapy were eligible providing the therapy was
completed at least 6 months before enrollment in this study.
Laboratory criteria included an absolute granulocyte count of ³
1,500 µL, a platelet count of ³
100,000/µL, serum bilirubin levels of £
1.5 mg/dL, and a serum creatinine level of £
1.5 mg/dL. Informed consent was required.

Treatment Regimen

Study 1—A fixed dose of UFT 400 mg/day was administered
in two daily doses every 12 hours continuously, plus calcium folinate
45 mg/day in three divided doses administered every 8 hours indefinitely.

Study 2—UFT 400 mg/m²/day was administered in two
daily doses every 12 hours indefinitely.

In both studies, treatment was continued until toxicity or disease
progression. If grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity appeared, treatment was
stopped until recovery, wherein patients resumed treatment at the
same doses.

Baseline Data

Patient characteristics are listed in Table
1
. Of the 106 patients entered in study 1, 80 (75%) had only one
site of metastasis, and 26 (25%) had two or more sites. The
predominant sites of metastasis were the liver (56%), local and
peritoneum (27%), and lymph node (21%). In study 2, 63 (66%) of the
95 patients had only one metastatic site, and 32 (34%) had two or
more sites. In this study, 68% of patients had liver metastasis.

Response and toxicity were evaluated using standard criteria.[19]
Toxicity was evaluated monthly, and response to treatment was
evaluated every 2 months by computed tomography scan (chest
radiography for lung metastasis was permitted). Only responses
lasting 2 months were considered objective responses. The
Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the actuarial median survival.

Results

Study 1

The median treatment time for these 106 patients was 4 months (range,
1 to 23 months) and minimum follow-up was 5 months to a maximum of 24
months. Toxicity, calculated as the maximum grade for the patient,
was evaluable in 98 patients (Table 2).
Six patients were lost to follow-up, and two patients had protocol
violations. One patient (1%) had grade 3 or grade 4 thrombocytopenia,
six patients (6%) experienced grade 3 nausea/vomiting, 11 patients
(11%) had grade 3 or grade 4 diarrhea, and one patient (1%) had grade
3 mucositis. Other toxicities included one case of grade 1
lacrimation and five cases of grade 1 alopecia. Toxicity resulted in
delayed chemotherapy in 20 patients (20%) for a median 10-day delay
per patient over the treatment period (range, 1 to 48 days).

The median UFT dose intensity was 400 mg/day. Response to treatment
was evaluable in 96 patients. Two additional patients refused
treatment before they completed 2 months of therapy. Responses
included five complete responses (CR) and 12 partial responses (PR),
for an overall response rate of 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI],
10% to 27%). Stable disease (SD) was noted in 24 patients (25%). The
total number of patients with nonprogressive disease (objective
response plus SD) was 41 (43%); 55 patients (57%) had progressive
disease (Table 3).

Median survival for the entire group was 13.7 months (Figure
1
), with no differences observed among responders and stable
patients. The difference between patients with nonprogressive disease
(CR + PR + SD) and patients with progressive disease was significant
(P < .01) (Figure 2).

Study 2

This preliminary data analysis includes 95 patients (of the 117
patients who entered the study [to date, 81% of patients have been
analyzed]), including 80 patients evaluable for toxicity and 62
patients evaluable for response. The median treatment time was 14
months, with a minimum follow-up of 0.3 months and a maximum
follow-up of 20.3 months. No patient experienced grades 3-4
hematologic toxicity; 7% of patients had grades 3-4 diarrhea; and 2%
of patients had grades 3-4 nausea/vomiting. Grades 1-2 toxicity
included nausea/vomiting, occurring in 24% of patients (Table
2
). Chemotherapy delay due to toxicity occurred in 11% of patients.

Treatment response was evaluated in 62 patients. There were five
complete responses (8%) and eight partial responses (13%), for an
overall response rate of 21% (95% CI, 13% to 30%). Twenty-five
patients had stable disease (40%), and 24 patients had progressive
disease (39%). The total number of patients with nonprogressive
disease (objective response plus SD) was 38 (61%) (Table
3
). At this time, the data are not mature enough for an overall
survival analysis.

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