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Supplements

Cancer Immunotherapy: New Horizons and Current Challenges

Supplements

This review will summarize the preclinical and clinical development of CTLA-4–blocking antibodies, discuss recent insights into the biology of CTLA-4 blockade, review the use of these antibodies in combination with established and novel therapeutic modalities, and comment on ongoing questions regarding their administration.

In this review, we will discuss the current status of several anti–PD-1 and anti–PD-L1 antibodies in clinical development and their direction for the future.

Characterizing tumors by PD-L1 expression, immune infiltration, chemokine signature, and tumor mutational frequency may be a means of creating an integrated model for determining which patients may benefit from which immune-checkpoint inhibitors, either alone or in combination.

As immune checkpoint–blocking medications are administered to an increasing number of patients, clinicians must be able to recognize and treat the associated immune-related side effects.

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