Pleural Fluid Analysis Shows Malignant Cells


After obtaining a thoracentesis in a 63-year-old woman who presented with significant dyspnea, you send the pleural fluid for analysis which shows malignant cells present consistent with a lung primary cancer.

What stage would her cancer be at this point?

A. Stage I
B. Stage II
C. Stage IIIa
D. Stage IIIb
E. Stage IV