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Melanoma incidence has increased more markedly than any other cancer type over the past decade, by an average of 2.6% per year. The incidence rates of noninvasive melanoma in situ has increased by 9.5% per year. The American Cancer Society predicts that 2018 will see more than 178,500 new melanoma diagnoses in the United States, including more than 91,200 invasive melanomas and more than 87,000 noninvasive cases.
B.Sunburns during childhood or early adulthood
Primary skin cancer of the trunk and limbs tends to be associated with childhood or early-adulthood sunburns, whereas melanoma of the head and neck are associated with chronic UV exposure throughout the life span. Mucosal melanoma does not appear to be associated with UV exposure or sunburn.
Tanning-device UV exposure is a dose-dependent risk factor for skin cancer. Women who have used these devices face a 6-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with melanoma before age 30.
Primary genitourinary melanomas are a rare and aggressive form of skin cancer. According to an analysis of NCI SEER database entries for genitourinary melanoma cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2012, this diagnosis is 10 times more common among women and women with this diagnosis have worse survival than men. Only 817 US patients were identified in the SEER database for the period 1992–2012.