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According to the National Cancer Institute, the incidence rate of newly-diagnosed skin cancer has increased steadily since 1975. Incidence rates climbed by an average of 1.5% annually, while the mortality rate declined by an average of 1.2% per year, from 2006–2015.
According to a study published in Preventive Medicine Reports, patients who are more thoroughly screened by clinicians score higher on measures of psychosocial wellbeing and are more likely to conduct monthly self-exams and annual physician skin exams. Rates of anxiety and depression did not differ between patients receiving the full- and partial-body skin exams.
C.Visual skin exams by a clinician
The USPSTF’s 2016 update reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of clinical visual skin exams for reducing skin cancer deaths, overall mortality, and morbidity. The authors concluded that the limited available evidence was insufficient for drawing a conclusion about the potential harms or benefits of clinician skin exams.
According to a 2016 systematic review, only one of six studies found that use of mobile phone–based interventions was associated with reduced sunburn rates. The authors recommended apps be designed for real-time reporting of sunburn or tools that allow photographs of skin to be submitted electronically, for more objective assessment in future studies.
D.All of the above
Surveys of the rapidly-growing list of dermatological smart phone applications include reference and educational tools regarding skin cancer risks and prevention, automated and teleradiological diagnostic tools or services, and skin self-surveillance tools. Although the FDA has proposed guidelines to regulate medical smart phone applications to ensure patient safety, the efficacy and safety of the hundreds of available skin cancer–related apps have yet to be studied.