Michael R. Cooper, MD | Authors

Management of Progressive Metastatic Prostate Cancer

October 01, 1997

This review succinctly summarizes a relatively large body of literature surrounding the treatment of advanced, stage D2 (M+) prostate cancer. However, the patient with classic stage D2 prostate cancer, presenting de novo with multiple sites of bony metastasis, pain, and other systemic symptoms, is becoming less common in clinical practice. In 1997, prostate cancer is most commonly diagnosed in a locally advanced form, either clinically or pathologically stage C (T3), and accounts for approximately 60% of all newly diagnosed cases in the United States.[1] The reasons for this “stage migration” undoubtedly lie in the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the detection of prostate cancer while still organ-confined, and in the use of PSA to monitor patients who have undergone definitive local treatment.