Heinz-Josef Lenz, MD, FACP | Authors

Cost-Effectiveness of Genomic Testing for Colorectal Cancer: Are We There Yet?

March 15, 2015

Although genomic testing can improve the cost-effectiveness of a treatment, assessing the cost-effectiveness of genomic testing outside the context of its impact on treatment is not practical.

Targeting Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in 2008: A Long Way From 5-FU

April 15, 2008

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, with almost 20% of all patients presenting with metastatic disease at the time of their diagnosis. The treatment regimens and options of metastatic colorectal cancer have significantly changed in the last 10 years, leading to an improvement of response rates to about 50%, progression-free survival of about 10 months, and overall survival reaching over 2 years.

Anti-EGFR Mechanism of Action: Antitumor Effect and Underlying Cause of Adverse Events

April 29, 2006

Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is correlated with poor prognosis in many human cancers. Two main classes of anticancer agents affect the EGFR: those targeting the extracellular ligand-binding domain and those that block the intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Cetuximab (Erbitux) is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets the ligand-binding domain of the EGFR, whereas erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa) are small-molecule TK inhibitors. Common toxicities of agents targeting the EGFR differ from those associated with traditional chemotherapy. Given the common pathway through which these agents work, some adverse events are similar. Many patients treated with these agents develop an acne-like rash on the face and upper body, most likely related to keratinocyte alterations and hair follicle proliferation and maturation. Although clinical manifestation of this reaction closely resembles acne vulgaris, the histology is more similar to infectious folliculitis. Other adverse events appear to be related to a drug class or individual agent. For example, interstitial lung disease is a rare but potentially fatal reaction that has been reported with gefitinib. Hypomagnesemia reported in association with cetuximab may be related to EGFR blockade in the kidney. Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid infusion reactions are also seen with cetuximab, as with other monoclonal antibodies.

Antiangiogenic Agents in Cancer Therapy

April 03, 2005

There is substantial preclinical and clinical evidence that angiogenesisplays a role in the development of tumors and the progression ofmalignancies. Inhibiting angiogenesis has been shown to suppress tumorgrowth and metastasis in many preclinical models. These benefitshave translated to the clinic with both marketed and investigationalantiangiogenesis agents. The most prominent target of these compoundsis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. However,several other factors are of interest as well. These include integrins,matrix metalloproteinases, and endogenous antiangiogenic factors. Datafrom late-stage clinical trials support the role of antiangiogenic agents incancer therapy and the significant role that VEGF plays in angiogenesis.Future research will focus on determining the tumor types and stages thatwill benefit most from antiangiogenic therapy and combining therapiesthat target different factors in the angiogenesis pathway.

Irinotecan and Paclitaxel in Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus and Gastric Cardia

September 01, 2003

Both irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar) and paclitaxel have beenshown to have single-agent activity in adenocarcinomas of the esophagusand gastric cardia. A phase I trial of the combination at UCLAestablished the dose as irinotecan at 225 mg/m2 and paclitaxel at100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Preliminary data from a phase II trial of thisregimen in adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction showgood tolerability and promising activity (response rate of 27%), even inA previously treated patients.