Jimmy J. Hwang, MD | Authors

Molecular Testing to Optimize and Personalize Decision Making in the Management of Colorectal Cancer

April 15, 2017

Recent improvements in our understanding of the biology of colorectal cancer have led to the identification of several important prognostic and predictive markers of disease-associated risk and treatment response for the individual patient.

Esophageal Cancer

November 01, 2015

This comprehensive guide for oncologists covers the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of esophageal cancer.

Cancer Management Chapter 9: Esophageal cancer

March 09, 2010

Although still relatively uncommon in Western countries, esophageal cancer is fatal in the vast majority of cases. In the United States, an estimated 16,470 new cases will be diagnosed in the year 2009, and 14,530 deaths will result from the disease. This high percentage of deaths rivals that of pancreatic cancer and is more than four times that of rectal cancer.

Role of Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Cancers

April 30, 2007

Esophageal, gastroesophageal junction, and gastric cancers are underpublicized but are frequently lethal, and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas are increasingly common diseases in the United States and around the world. Although often grouped together in studies of chemotherapy, clear distinctions can be made in the locoregional therapy of these diseases. Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas may be treated with surgery or radiation with concurrent chemotherapy, whereas esophageal adenocarcinomas and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas are often treated with all three treatment modalities. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly evident that gastric cancer is a disease that is potentially sensitive to chemotherapy. In the perioperative setting—at least in the Western world—chemotherapy and sometimes radiation are applied. However, the optimal chemotherapy for advanced gastric or esophageal cancer remains unsettled, and there is no single standard regimen. Several new chemotherapy agents have demonstrated activity in these diseases, but the best chemotherapy remains to be determined. This paper will review the role of chemotherapy in gastroesophageal cancers.

The Impact of Targeted Therapy on the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

November 02, 2005

In the past several years, the impact of the new biologic therapies oncolorectal cancer has been dramatic. The focus of this article is to summarizesome of the key advances of incorporating biologically targetedtherapies into the routine management of patients with colorectal cancer.We will review important data presented at the 2005 American Society ofClinical Oncology annual meeting and discuss the incorporation of thesedata into the most optimal management of our patients, including howbest to manage side effects and keep quality of life as high as possible.

Irinotecan and 5-FU/Leucovorin in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Balancing Efficacy, Toxicity, and Logistics

December 04, 2004

Variations of fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy have formed the backboneof chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer for many years.With the advent of newer agents that often work best with or even requirechemotherapy to optimize their activity, the issue of the optimalschedule and regimen of administration of 5-FU has taken on a renewedimportance. The combination of irinotecan with 5-FU/leucovorinhas consistently improved survival and response rates in comparisonto 5-FU/leucovorin alone. However, the combination also increasesthe toxicity of the treatment, thus resulting in continuing attemptsto improve on the toxicity profile of the combination, while retainingor improving upon the therapeutic outcomes. This article reviewsthe various combinations of irinotecan with 5-FU/leucovorin.

Improving the Toxicity of Irinotecan/5-FU/ Leucovorin: A 21-Day Schedule

September 01, 2003

Irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar) is one of the new generation ofchemotherapeutic agents that has activity in advanced colorectal cancer.It has antitumor efficacy as a single agent, and also has beencombined with fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (IFL) to treat thesepatients. Randomized studies have confirmed the superiority of IFL to5-FU and leucovorin alone with regard to patient survival, time toprogression, and tumor response rate. The optimal schedule for combiningthese agents remains uncertain, but in the United States, theschedule of IFL weekly for 4 consecutive weeks repeated every 6 weeks,according to the schedule reported by Saltz et al, has been widely used,although with some toxicity (especially myelosuppression and diarrhea).In an attempt to improve the tolerability of IFL, some haveadvocated modifying the schedule of IFL to weekly for 2 weeks, withrepeated cycles every 21 days. Twenty-three patients with advancedcolorectal cancer have been treated on this schedule at a single institution.Therapy was well tolerated, with 35% of patients experiencinggrade 3/4 neutropenia, two of whom had episodes of febrile neutropenia,and 9% with grade 3/4 diarrhea. The median relative dose intensityof irinotecan administered in the first 18 patients treated with thisregimen was 94%. These data support the hypothesis that modifying theschedule of administration of IFL improves the tolerability and abilityto deliver the regimen, but must be confirmed by randomized prospectivestudies, which may also attempt to evaluate the role of bolus 5-FUin the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.