ONCOLOGY Vol 10 No 1 | Oncology

Topotecan Demonstrates Significant Activity in Recurrent Small-Cell Lung Cancer

January 01, 1996

Topotecan HCl, an investigational anticancer drug, has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in previously treated small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) researchers, who presented phase II trial data at the Eighth European Conference on Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research and Cancer Nursing (ECCO-8) in Paris.

Inhibition of Prostaglandins May Be Mechanism by Which Aspirin Protects Against Certain Cancers

January 01, 1996

New research suggests that the reason aspirin may protect against certain cancers is its ability to inhibit prostaglandins, chemicals naturally produced by the body that are suspected of playing a role in colorectal and lung cancer.

Complete DNA Sequencing of p53 Gene May Help Clinicians Predict Best Treatment Course for Breast Cancer Patients

January 01, 1996

DNA sequence analysis of the complete p53 tumor-suppressor gene provides predictive information about breast cancer patients' response to therapy, according to a study published in the October 1995 issue of Nature Medicine. The study analyzes the associations between tumor mutations and patient outcome--especially in relation to therapy--using Sequence-Based Diagnosis, (SBD), a new concept for complete DNA sequencing. Although previous studies have examined p53 using various molecular biologic methods, this study represents the first complete sequencing of the p53 gene in a large retrospective study of a population-based cohort. The study also confirms that since mutations are found over the entire coding sequence, some could be missed using traditional DNA analysis protocols.

Book Review: Cancer Treatment: 4th Edition

January 01, 1996

The 1995 Cancer Treatment edited by Dr. Charles Haskell is the fourth edition of his original textbook published in 1980. Cancer Treatment has kept pace with advances in oncology over these 15 years, and the fourth edition includes new

Are We Ready to Screen for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer?

January 01, 1996

Recent dramatic advances in the understanding of inherited susceptibility to several common adult-onset cancers have made possible the identification of individuals who may be at significantly increased risk of developing malignant disease. These advances may translate into some of the first opportunities for cancer prevention.

University of Pittsburgh Researchers Use Dendritic Cells to Successfully Treat Experimental Cancers

January 01, 1996

Potent immune cells that have been pretreated with peptides taken from the surface of tumor cells are effective in curing established cancers and in preventing cancers from developing in mice, according to research published in the December 1995 issue of Nature Medicine. Clinical trials of this therapeutic approach will begin soon, according to study investigators.

Tumor-Suppressor Gene Located in Liver Cancer Cells

January 01, 1996

A malfunctioning "traffic cop" gene apparently plays an important role in the formation of liver cancer, according to researchers from the Duke University Comprehensive Cancer Center and Zeneca Pharmaceuticals of Chesire, United Kingdom.

Use of Dexamethasone With 5-HT3-Receptor Antagonists

January 01, 1996

Corticosteroids have not been approved by the FDA for use as antiemetic agents. However, the efficacy of these agents (primarily dexamethasone) when used as single agents for control of emesis has been extensively documented. In addition,

Genetic Counseling in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

January 01, 1996

Menko and colleagues review the genetic counseling that occurs after the presymptomatic diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is made. The discovery of the mechanism by which tumors develop in this setting and the cloning of the genes responsible for the disease have made possible the DNA-based diagnosis of a disease, which, less than 5 years ago, was a controversial entity. In a remarkably short period, the nature of HNPCC has been greatly elucidated, its relationship to defective DNA mismatch repair has become manifest, and the means to diagnose it in a presymptomatic state has been developed [1].

Genetic Testing and Counseling in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

January 01, 1996

The authors provide a timely introduction to the use of predictive testing as an adjunctive service in the management of a precancerous chronic disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). As they point out, this new technology carries a significant burden for both the caregiver and affected family since it will alter the genetic counseling process, as well as the clinical recommendations for managing FAP. The unique perspective of registry-based research illustrates the value of generational study of a genetic anomaly over a 22-year-period.

Genetic Counseling in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

January 01, 1996

Recent identification of gene mutations responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) has made possible the presymptomatic diagnosis of at-risk family members. If DNA testing shows that a family member is a gene carrier, that individual's lifetime cancer risk is approximately 90%. If the test is negative, the family member's cancer risk drops to that of the general population.

The Economics of Oncology: Doctor-Hospital Integrated Practice

January 01, 1996

The doctor-hospital integrated practice is one possible strategy oncologists may wish to employ in order to stay financially solvent in the current unstable health-care environment. Before entering into an arrangement with a

Genetic Testing and Counseling in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

January 01, 1996

Testing for adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the gene responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), can now be offered to family members in FAP kindreds. With the availability of this test, genetic counseling has become a crucial tool for helping FAP patients and their relatives understand the syndrome and its implications and for assisting at-risk individuals in making informed decisions about whether or not to undergo genetic testing. Genetic counseling can occur at several time points: when FAP is diagnosed, when an FAP patient is considering reproductive options, when a patient is deciding whether to have his or her children screened, and when an at-risk person is considering genetic testing.

Are We Ready to Screen for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer?

January 01, 1996

The discovery of inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of certain cancers could greatly expand the use of predictive genetic testing in healthy individuals. In families with hereditary forms of cancer, the use of genetic tests to determine whether family members have inherited suseptibility mutations (ISMs} may improve out come.