Managing the Peritoneal Surface Component of Gastrointestinal Cancer; Part 1. Patterns of Dissemination and Treatment Options
January 01, 2004
Until recently, peritoneal carcinomatosis was a universally fatalmanifestation of gastrointestinal cancer. However, two innovations intreatment have improved outcome for these patients. The new surgicalinterventions are collectively referred to as peritonectomy procedures.During these procedures, all visible cancer is removed in an attempt toleave the patient with only microscopic residual disease. Perioperativeintraperitoneal chemotherapy, the second innovation, is employed toeradicate small-volume residual disease. The intraperitoneal chemotherapyis administered in the operating room with moderate hyperthermiaand is referred to as heated intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.If tolerated, additional intraperitoneal chemotherapy canbe administered during the first 5 postoperative days. The use of thesecombined treatments, ie, cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy,improves survival, optimizes quality of life, and maximallypreserves function. Part 1 of this two-part article describes the naturalhistory of gastrointestinal cancer with carcinomatosis, the patterns ofdissemination within the peritoneal cavity, and the benefits and limitationsof peritoneal chemotherapy. Peritonectomy procedures are also definedand described. Part 2, to be published next month in this journal,discusses the mechanics of delivering perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapyand the clinical assessments used to select patients who willbenefit from combined treatment. The results of combined treatment asthey vary in mucinous and nonmucinous tumors are also discussed.