The Karnofsky performance index and WHO (Zubrod) scale (on the following page) are included here because they are commonly used as proxy measures for quality of life.
|Able to carry on normal activity and to work||100||Normal; no complaints; no evidence of disease|
|90||Able to carry on normal activity; minor signs or symptoms of disease|
|80||Normal activity with effort; some signs or symptoms of disease|
|Unable to work; able to live at home, care for most personal needs; a varying amount of assistance is needed||70||Cares for self; unable to carry on normal activity or to do active work|
|60||Requires occasional assistance but is able to care for most needs|
|50||Requires considerable assistance and frequent medical care|
|Unable to care for self; requires equivalent of institutional or hospital care; disease may be progressing rapidly||40||Disabled; requires special care and assistance|
|30||Severely disabled; hospitalization is indicated, although death is not imminent|
|20||Very sick; hospitalization necessary; active supportive treatment necessary|
|10||Moribund; fatal processes progressing rapidly|
The Karnofsky performance index and WHO (Zubrod) scale (on the following page) are included here because they are commonly used as proxy measures for quality of life. Because they measure only one dimension of the construct, they would not be considered quality-of-life measures by today’s standards. However, given their historic relevance and current high frequency of usage as proxy measures, we have included them here.
This scale is used to measure performance of which the patient is capable. For example, a patient in the hospital for metabolic studies may be fully capable of performing normal activities but will remain in bed through his or her own choice. Such a patient should be coded 0, “normal.”
|1||Symptoms but nearly fully ambulatory|
|2||Some bed time but needs to be in bed< 50% of normal daytime|
|3||Needs to be in bed > 50% of normal daytime|
|4||Unable to get out of bed|
From Zubrod CG, Schneiderman M, Frei E III, et al: Appraisal of methods for the study of chemotherapy of cancer in man: Comparative therapeutic trial of nitrogen mustard and triethylene thiophosphoramide. J Chron Dis 11:7–33, 1960.