Confronting America’s Smoking Pandemic, Part 1: 1939–1966


Ahead of the World Tobacco Congress, Dr. Alan Blum and Cancer Network have partnered to assemble a four-part slideshow series addressing the history of America’s smoking pandemic. Part 1 examines the early evidence linking smoking with cancer.

Confronting America’s Smoking PandemicPart 1: From Early Evidence to Global Battle, 1939–1966Part 2: An Era of Activism, 1967–1985Part 3: Regulation, Legislation, Litigation, 1986–1999Part 4: Failures and Successes 2000–2016


1. Ochsner A, DeBakey M. Primary pulmonary malignancy: treatment by total pneumonectomy; analysis of 79 collected cases and presentation of 7 personal cases. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1939;68:435-51.

2. Ochsner Health System. Living the legacy: who was Alton Ochsner and why are we living his legacy? January 18, 2011.

3. Ventura HO. Alton Ochsner, MD: physician. Ochsner J. 2002;4:48-52.

4. Nelson J. Advertising bans, US. EH.Net Encyclopedia. Whaples R, editor. May 20, 2004.

5. Justia US Supreme Court. Valentine v. Chrestensen, 316 U.S. 52 (1942).

6. Wynder EL, Graham EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma; a study of 684 proved cases. J Am Med Assoc. 1950;143:329-36.

7. Levin ML, Goldstein H, Gerhardt PR, et al. Cancer and tobacco; a preliminary report. J Am Med Assoc. 1950;143:336-8.

8. Doll R, Hill AB. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report. Br Med J. 1950;2:739-48.

9. Ochsner A, DeCamp PT, DeBakey ME, Ray CJ. Bronchogenic carcinoma; its frequency, diagnosis, and early treatment. J Am Med Assoc. 1952;148:691-7.

10. Norr R. Cancer by the carton. Christian Herald, October 1952; a condensed version was published in Reader’s Digest by the Reader’s Digest Association, Pleasantville, New York. December 1952, p. 7,8. Available from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, University of California, San Francisco.

11.A frank statement to cigarette smokers. Tobacco Industry Research Committee, New York, NY. [Image shows advertisement as it was printed in the Indianapolis News, January 4, 1954.]

12. Hammond EC, Horn D. Smoking and death rates-report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187,783 men. J Am Med Assoc. 1958;166:1294-308.

13. Burney LE. Smoking and lung cancer. A statement of the public health service. J Am Med Assoc. 1959;171:1829-37.

14. Welcome to the five-day plan to stop smoking: even to better living. General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists. Washington, DC. 1962. p. 52.

15. McFarland JW, Folkenberg EJ. How to stop smoking in five days. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1964. p. 92.

16. McFarland JW, Gimbel HW, Donald WAJ, Folkenberg EJ. The five-day program to help individuals stop smoking. Conn Med. 1964;28:885-90.


Smoking and health: summary of a report of The Royal College of Physicians of London on smoking in relation to cancer of the lung and other diseases

. London: Pitman Publishing Co. Ltd.; 1962.

18. Neuberger MB. Smoke screen: tobacco and the public welfare. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1963. p. 151.

19. US Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. Smoking and health: report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. PHS publication 1103. 1964. Subsequent reports from the Surgeon General.

20. Tobacco Control Legal Consortium. Federal Trade Commission and Tobacco.

Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (15 U.S.C. 1333).
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