This slide show features some of the top highlights from the 2015 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting.
REFERENCES1. Jameson GS, Borazanci E, Poplin E, et al. High complete and partial response rate in a phase Ib pilot trial with cisplatin plus albumin-bound paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract LB-003.2. Ribas A, Schachter J, Long GV, et al. Phase III study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) versus ipilimumab in patients with ipilimumab-naive advanced melanoma. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract CT101.3. Hodi FS, Postow MA, Chesney J, et al. Improved clinical response in patients with advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab combined with ipilimumab compared to ipilimumab alone. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract 2860.4. Emens LA, Braiteh FS, Cassier P, et al. Inhibition of PD-L1 by MPDL3280A leads to clinical activity in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract 2859.5. Mateo J, Sandhu S, Miranda S, et al. DNA repair defects and antitumor activity with PARP inhibition: TOPARP, a phase II trial of olaparib in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract CT322.6. Beachler DC, Kreimer AR, Schiffman M, et al. Efficacy of the HPV16/18 vaccine against cervical, anal, and oral HPV infection among women with and without previous HPV16/18 exposure. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting; April 18-22, 2015; Philadelphia. Abstract 4680.
Triple Combination Elicits Responses in Pancreatic Cancer: Adding the drug cisplatin to the standard-of-care combination of albumin-bound paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in 10 advanced pancreatic cancer patients resulted in two complete responses (20%) and six partial responses (60%). One patient had stable disease (10%) and one patient had progressive disease (10%). These results from a pilot phase Ib study prompted a phase II study in 25 pancreatic cancer patients. Serious adverse events occurred in four patients and included non-neutropenic sepsis/pneumonia, non-neutropenic bacteremia, clostridium difficile colitis, and neutropenic fever/pneumonia. The rationale for adding cisplatin to this regimen is that pancreatic tumors harbor many intrachromosomal aberrations that indicate DNA repair deficiencies and the potential for sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Image source: Gayle S. Jameson, CRNP, Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center at Scottsdale Healthcare, Scottsdale, Arizona
AntiâPD-1 Antibody Trumps AntiâCTLA-4 Antibody in Metastatic Melanoma: The phase III KEYNOTE-006 trial compared two immune checkpoint inhibitors head-to-head as first-line therapy for metastatic melanoma. Pembrolizumab, an antiâPD-1 antibody, resulted in better outcomes compared with ipilimumab, an antiâCTLA-4 antibody. Advanced melanoma patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or every 3 weeks or to four doses of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks. After 6 months of therapy, progression-free survival rates were 47.3% for pembrolizumab every 2 weeks, 46.4% for pembrolizumab every 3 weeks, and 26.5% for ipilimumab. Pembrolizumab also improved overall survival. Image source: Antoni Ribas, MD, PhD, UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California
Improvement in Treatment Responses With Immunotherapy Combination in Melanoma: The combination of the T-cell checkpoint pathway inhibitors ipilimumab and nivolumab resulted in better treatment responses compared with ipilimumab alone in a phase I trial of treatment-naive metastatic melanoma patients. Among patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, the combined treatment resulted in an objective response rate of 61% compared with 11% in those assigned ipilimumab alone. Complete responses occurred in 22% of patients assigned to the combined immunotherapy treatment and none of the patients assigned to monotherapy. Image source: F. Stephen Hodi, MD, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
AntiâPD-L1 Antibody Shows Activity in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: The antiâPD-L1 antibody, MPDL3280A, was found to be safe and tolerable and showed some evidence of clinical activity in a cohort of 54 triple-negative breast cancer patients. At 24 weeks, the progression-free survival rate was 27% and the objective response rate was 19%. Three of the four patients who responded continue to respond. Of the 54 patients evaluated for side effects, 63% had at least one drug-related adverse event and 11% had a grade 3 or higher adverse event. Image source: Leisha A. Emens, MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland
Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Respond to Olaparib: Men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that had mutations in DNA repair genes were more likely to respond to the PARP inhibitor olaparib. In the phase II TOPARP trial, 17 of the 49 evaluable men responded to olaparib. Six men had radiologic responses and 11 had biochemical responses, as determined by a reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of greater than 50%. Four of these patients had responses that lasted more than 12 months. Consistent with previous olaparib studies in other tumor types, anemia and fatigue were the most common grade 3 or higher adverse events. Image source: Joaquin Mateo, MD, the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom
HPV Vaccine Protective, Even Among Previously Exposed Women: The human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine protects against HPV at its three sites of infection-cervical, anal, and oral-in women aged 18 to 25 years. The results of this study showed that women vaccinated with the HPV 16/18 vaccine were protected from future infections, even women who were previously exposed to HPV. These results support the current US guidelines that recommend routine vaccination for girls aged 11 to 12 years, up through the age of 26. Efficacy was 83% among women with no evidence of prior HPV exposure, 58% among women with HPV exposure before vaccination, and a non-significant 25% among women with active cervical HPV 16/18 infection at vaccination. Image Â© AACR/Todd Buchanan 2015