Tahlita C. M. Zuiverloon, MD, PhD | Authors

Clinical Decision Making in Surveillance of Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Evolving Roles of Urinary Cytology and Molecular Markers

December 15, 2017

In this article, we discuss the requirements for development and validation of urine markers and the factors that hamper their clinical implementation. We also review current surveillance guidelines for NMIBC and provide an overview of approved urine markers for the detection and surveillance of NMIBC.