June 1st 1995
The first description of percutaneous biliary drainage in the United States appeared in 1965 . The percutaneously placed catheters were left in the obstructed biliary tract for drainage for up to 5 days. Since then, biliary drainage techniques have advanced substantially, and options have proliferated. Now, the nonsurgical palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, accomplished either endoscopically or percutaneously, is a well-established therapeutic modality.