Paulo M. Hoff, MD, FACP | Authors

Is Surgery Always Necessary in Rectal Cancer?

July 15, 2014

In this article, we review risks and benefits of the standard treatment approach for rectal cancer and compare standard treatment with alternative methods aimed at rectal preservation.

Autonomy Versus Paternalism in Latin America

January 17, 2012

In this paper, Dr. Cherny beautifully reviews how to balance the patient's right to be adequately informed about his or her disease with the powerful cultural beliefs held in many parts of the world.

Perioperative Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

January 02, 2009

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal or a precursor and are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.[1] Although GISTs often present as localized masses, they are typified by a high risk of metastatic relapse, most commonly in the liver and peritoneum.

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer

March 01, 2008

Adjuvant therapy is defined as any treatment administered after surgical resection of a primary tumor with the intent of improving the patient’s outcome by eliminating any occult, viable tumor cells that may have remained after surgery.

Complete Guide to Colorectal Cancer

September 01, 2006

Nearly 150,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the United States in 2006. The impact of this diagnosis will be felt by countless family members, coworkers, and friends. Although screening tests for colorectal cancer have been available and encouraged by medical associations such as the American Cancer Society (ACS) and others, public awareness and compliance has been dismal.

Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Advanced Colorectal Cancer

November 02, 2005

Several developments in the past few years have incrementally progressedthe field and provided additional insights into the managementof advanced colorectal cancer. This review discusses the componentsof current cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for advanced colorectalcancer: fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine (Xeloda), irinotecan(Camptosar), and oxaliplatin (Eloxatin). The equivalence of severalfront-line regimens has provided opportunities for increased tailoringof therapies for individual patients. Preliminary data onpharmacogenomics provides hope that we will be able to better matchpatients with regimens and doses on the basis of individualized predictionsof toxicity and response. The importance of second-line therapyin overall survival has again been highlighted; the best outcomes haveoccurred in patients treated with 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan incombination with targeted therapies during the course of their disease.Elderly patients are no exception to this finding. Combination regimensand second-line therapy should be offered to elderly patients whohave adequate performance status and no contraindicated comorbidconditions, without regard for their chronological age.

Monoclonal Antibodies: The Foundation of Therapy for Colorectal Cancer in the 21st Century?

May 01, 2004

The treatment of colorectal cancer has undergone enormous changesin the past decade. From a disease with a single treatment option (ie,fluorouracil, a modestly effective drug), the treatment options haveevolved to include at least five new classes of antineoplastic agents.Among the considerable number of recently approved drugs, two aremonoclonal antibodies and are the testing ground for our rapidly emergingknowledge about cancer cell biology. Cetuximab (Erbitux) targetsthe epidermal growth factor receptor, an important molecule involvedwith cell cycling, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Bevacizumab(Avastin) neutralizes the vascular endothelial growth factor, blockingits ability to activate its receptor on the endothelial cells. The developmentof both antibodies resulted from decades of research in molecularand cell biology, as well as preclinical and clinical studies, and signalsa new paradigm where the tumor cells’ own unique features areexploited in a rational way.

Other Fluorinated Pyrimidines in the Treatment of Solid Tumors

January 02, 2001

Researchers, primarily in Japan, Europe, and the United States, have evaluated several new fluorinated pyrimidines in recent years. Most of these drugs are orally active prodrugs of fluorouracil (5-FU), and some also

Colorectal Cancer: Chemotherapy Treatment Overview

December 03, 2000

Fluorouracil (5-FU) has remained the standard therapy for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer for over 40 years. Unfortunately, only a minority of patients experience objective clinical response.

Preoperative UFT/Leucovorin and Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

October 01, 2000

The use of combined modality regimens has been well established in the treatment of stages II and III rectal cancer. The most common chemotherapy regimens used include continuous-infusion 5-FU delivered with the help of a central venous catheter and the use of portable pumps.