Author | Robert A. Figlin, MD

Articles

Third-Line Treatment Options for Kidney Cancer

September 15, 2016

Effectively, the field has tested agents for metastatic disease in only two clinical settings: primary management of metastatic disease (first-line) and after progression with a first-line therapy (second-line); however, there are no category 1 data that support the use of any agent in the third-line setting.

Systemic Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Advancing Paradigms

March 15, 2012

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had historically been regarded as a disease that was refractory to therapy once surgical options had been exhausted.

Evolving Role of Novel Targeted Agents in Renal Cell Carcinoma

September 01, 2007

The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically over the past few years. An improved understanding of the biology of RCC has resulted in the development of novel targeted therapeutic agents that have altered the natural history of this disease. In particular, the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway have been exploited. Sunitinib malate (Sutent), sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar), bevacizumab (Avastin)/interferon alfa, and temsirolimus (Torisel) have improved clinical outcomes in randomized trials by inhibiting these tumorigenic pathways. Combinations and sequences of these agents are being evaluated. Other novel multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (pazopanib and axitinib) and mTOR inhibitors (everolimus) are in clinical development. Recently reported and ongoing clinical trials will help further define the role of these agents as therapy for metastatic RCC.