ONCOLOGY Vol 12 No 7 | Oncology

Expertise of Genetic Counselors Clarified

July 01, 1998

In his article, "Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility: Challenges for Creators of Practice Guide-lines" [11(11A):171-176, 1997], Henry Greely, JD, provides a comprehensive review of the complex issues that patients consider when deciding

Jefferson Oncology Group Established to Enhance Clinical Trial Development

July 01, 1998

The Jefferson Cancer Network of Thomas Jefferson University’s Kimmel Cancer Center recently established a cooperative program known as the Jefferson Oncology Group among its members. The purpose of this new cooperative program is to

New Gene Therapy Produces Marked Regression of Tumors in Animals

July 01, 1998

Scientists at Ohio University Edison Biotechnology Institute have used a nonviral gene expression system, invented and patented by Ohio University several years ago, to eliminate human cancer cells in animals. The investigators reported achieving

Medical Treatment for Intractable Obesity in Pediatric Cancer Patients

July 01, 1998

A potential treatment for hypothalamic obesity that often afflicts children who receive treatment for brain tumors or leukemia has been discovered by researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Many of these childhood cancer survivors die in

Eating More Vegetables and Fruits and Less Meat May Help Prevent Breast Cancer

July 01, 1998

Women who adhere to a low-fat diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits may decrease their risk of developing breast cancer, according to a new study published in the May 1998 issue of The Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The study

Cryotherapy for Liver Tumors

July 01, 1998

Drs. McCarty and Kuhn have brought the readers up-to-date on a new technology--cryosurgery--that is available to treat malignant and benign tumors in the liver. The authors are cautiously optimistic regarding the ultimate success of this therapy. They present the current data, which were generated in patient groups that are the most difficult to treat--those with "unresectable" disease.

Accurate Mammogram Reading More Likely Following Mammotome Biopsy, Study Indicates

July 01, 1998

Mammotome biopsy causes significantly less internal breast scarring than open surgical biopsy and is less likely to interfere with a radiologist’s ability to read subsequent mammograms, according to a new study presented at the third annual

Update: HIV Counseling and Testing Using Rapid Tests--U.S., 1995

July 01, 1998

Approximately 25 million persons each year in the United States are tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Publicly funded counseling and testing (CT) programs conduct approximately 2.5 million of these tests each year.

Efficacy of Immunotherapy in Prostate and Stomach Cancer, and Potential Gene Therapy With p53 and E1A

July 01, 1998

In order for the immune system to protect against cancer, it must recognize tumors as "non-self." Markers present on the surface of tumors, known as antigens, allow the immune system to recognize tumors as non-self. However, in order for the

3D Structure of Tumor-Suppressor Protein Generated on the Computer

July 01, 1998

Researchers at Ohio State University’s Comprehensive Cancer Center have determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the protein produced by the p16 tumor-suppressor gene. This protein normally prevents cells from dividing inappropriately.

Photography of the Cecum Should Accompany Colonoscopy, Say Researchers

July 01, 1998

The best deterrent against colorectal cancer may be to photograph the cecum--where a significance incidence of colorectal cancer occurs--as a complement to performing colonoscopy, according to a study conducted in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The

ODAC Recommends Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Indication for Gemcitabine

July 01, 1998

The FDA’s Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) recommended that gemcitabine HCl (Gemzar) be approved both as a single agent and in combination with cisplatin (Platinol) for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell

Axillary Dissection in Invasive Breast Cancer

July 01, 1998

The article by Manjeet Chadha and Deborah Axelrod on routine axillary dissection in invasive breast cancer (11: 1463-1468, 1997) is a well-presented discussion of a timely subject. The authors make a good case that nodal disease (pN+) is no

Natural History and Treatment of Malignant Thymoma

July 01, 1998

Cowen and colleagues provide a very good review of thymomas. Although thymomas are the most common of the anterior mediastinal tumors, these tumors as a group are relatively uncommon. The authors focus their discussion on the pathology, staging, and management of thymomas.

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of AIDS-Related Lymphomas

July 01, 1998

Dr. Aboulafia provides an accurate overview of the relationship between immunodeficiency and malignant lymphoma, the lymphoproliferative disorders that occur following solid organ transplantation, and the epidemiology and pathogenetic mechanisms possibly involved in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphomagenesis.

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of AIDS-Related Lymphomas

July 01, 1998

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma is a complex disease process with a range of features that are distinct from both non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) outside of the context of immunodeficiency and the lymphoproliferative disease seen in immunodeficiency unrelated to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Dr. Aboulafia lucidly summarizes the issues contributing to the unique aspects of this disease.

Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients: Characteristics, Prevalence, and Treatment

July 01, 1998

As indicated in this review by Patt and Ellison, the literature pertaining to the association between transitory acute pains and chronic cancer-related pain is limited and plagued by nomenclatural problems. Nonetheless, the clinical relevance of these so-called breakthrough pains is apparent to those who treat cancer patients.

Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients: Characteristics, Prevalence, and Treatment

July 01, 1998

It is striking how often medical advances occur as a result of the recognition of something that, in retrospect, is obvious. Pain has always been a feared consequence of disease, particularly cancer. Only in the past decade, however, has the widespread undertreatment of pain and its impact on the quality of life of patient and family gained the attention of mainstream medical research. Rapid, simultaneous advances in basic neurobiology and clinical investigation have dramatically improved the clinician’s ability to diagnose and treat pain.

Cryotherapy for Liver Tumors

July 01, 1998

The curative management of primary and metastatic liver tumors has traditionally relied on surgical resection. Unfortunately, fewer than 10% of newly diagnosed patients have tumors that are considered to be surgically

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of AIDS-Related Lymphomas

July 01, 1998

Among patients with congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) are the most common tumors of the immune system. In the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, as

Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients: Characteristics, Prevalence, and Treatment

July 01, 1998

"Breakthrough pain" is a common clinical term that has not been conclusively defined or described. Breakthrough pain is a transitory flare of pain experienced when baseline pain has been reduced to a mild or moderate level.

Natural History and Treatment of Malignant Thymoma

July 01, 1998

Thymomas are rare, slow-growing neoplasms that are considered to be malignant because of their potential invasiveness. The most widely used staging system is that of Masaoka and colleagues, which takes into account

Cryotherapy for Liver Tumors

July 01, 1998

The majority of metastatic liver tumors cannot be resected because of bilobar involvement, location, size, and/or proximity to large vessels. Drs. McCarty and Kuhn succinctly summarize the existing literature on cryosurgery and its potential use in patients with unresectable liver tumors.

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of AIDS-Related Lymphomas

July 01, 1998

This review by Dr. Aboulafia presents aspects of the epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS)-related lymphomas and their pathogenesis. The author’s main focus is in the molecular area, and the summary of epidemiology is well known to those interested in this field.

New Multimedia Library Provides Clearinghouse for Cancer Patients

July 01, 1998

According to the National Cancer Institute, an estimated 40% of people living today will develop cancer in their lifetime. In order to help provide cancer patients and their families with easy, affordable access to the information needed to make

Sentinel Lymphadenectomy: Accurate Histopathologic Staging of the Axilla

July 01, 1998

We agree with the need to reexamine the routine use of axillary dissection in the management of breast cancer patients, as advocated by Manjeet Chadha and Deborah Axelrod, in their article, "Is Axillary Dissection Always Indicated in Invasive