ONCOLOGY Vol 14 No 6 | Oncology

Common p53 Gene Test Helps Predict Cancer Recurrence in Mastectomy Patients

June 01, 2000

A common blood protein test can predict which breast cancer patients are at risk for recurrence after mastectomy. The test may eventually help direct treatment decisions, speculate researchers from the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at

Promising Results With Targeted Drug Delivery System for Primary Liver Cancer

June 01, 2000

FeRx Incorporated, a privately held development stage drug delivery company, recently reported encouraging data from its phase I/II clinical trial of doxorubicin adsorbed to magnetic targeted carriers (MTC-DOX), for the treatment of patients with

Breath Test Identifies Patients Who Should Get Lower Chemotherapy Doses

June 01, 2000

A relatively simple technique, pioneered by a North Carolina physician, can distinguish between patients who can metabolize docetaxel (Taxotere) normally and those who need to receive lower doses for safety, according to a recent study. Researchers

ADA Inhibitors: Recent Developments and Future Directions in Low-Grade Lymphoma

June 01, 2000

Pentostatin (Nipent) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits the activity of the enzyme adenosine deaminase. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase blocks the deamination of adenosine to inosine and deoxyadenosine to deoxyinosine in the purine

3D CRT More Cost-Effective Than Conventional RT for Prostate Cancer

June 01, 2000

Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) is more effective yet costs no more than conventional radiation therapy in the long-term treatment of prostate cancer, according to a study conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center in

Economic Consequences of Cancer Treatment–Related Fatigue

June 01, 2000

Cancer treatment–related fatigue, the most prevalent and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, has a significant impact on the economic well-being of patients and their caregivers, according to a national survey of more than 300 cancer patients. The

Research Challenges Conventional Thinking About Prostate Cancer Treatment

June 01, 2000

Physicians have long known that male hormones fuel prostate cancer growth. That’s why therapies that block the production of androgen-or testosterone-provide some of the most effective therapies for advanced prostate cancer. Certain drugs, for

Study Finds Estrogen May Fuel Lung Cancer Growth

June 01, 2000

Long known to be instrumental in fueling the growth of breast cancer, estrogen may spur the same process in lung cancer, according to the findings of a University of Pittsburgh study presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Intra-abdominal Malignancy

June 01, 2000

Accurate imaging of the hepatic and extrahepatic abdomen is an important component of the management of many patients with cancer. Historically, clinicians have relied on computed tomography (CT). The use of intravenous (IV) and oral contrast

Breast Cancer

June 01, 2000

This is a comprehensive 701-page volume filled with excellent illustrations, photographs, tables, and schematics. The overall structure of the book takes the reader from molecular oncology issues through pathology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and a

Cell Phone Users May Still Be At Risk for Brain Cancer

June 01, 2000

With worldwide use of cellular phones rising exponentially, a team of Swedish medical investigators is raising renewed concerns about the link between brain tumors and cell phones in a new, peer-reviewed article posted on the Medscape

AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Current Treatment Options, Future Trends

June 01, 2000

In his excellent review, Dr. Mitsuyasu correctly highlights the three most important ingredients that play a role in the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8 (KSHV/HHV-8); altered expression and response to cytokines; and stimulation of KS growth by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 trans-activating protein, Tat. Recent studies have provided tremendous insight into the process whereby KSHV/HHV-8 creates the inflammatory-angiogenic state that characterizes KS.

Commentary (Shah): Current Status of Voice Restoration Following Total Laryngectomy

June 01, 2000

Drs. Mark Singer and Eric Blom revolutionized the process of speech rehabilitation following total laryngectomy with their introduction of the tracheoesophageal puncture and insertion of a duck bill prosthesis.[1-5] The physiologic principles of the procedure are obvious, the surgical technique is simple, and the results in terms of fluent speech production are immediate and quite satisfactory. Dr. Blom is to be complimented for providing in this article, a succinct summary of the “current methods” available for speech rehabilitation for a patient facing total laryngectomy.

Oral Therapy for Colorectal Cancer: How to Choose

June 01, 2000

Heidelberger and associates[1] synthesized fluorouracil (5-FU) in 1957 after observing that rat hepatomas utilized radiolabeled uracil more avidly than malignant tissues. For the past 40 years, 5-FU has been extensively investigated in various schedules, in combination with biochemical modulators, and for a variety of malignancies.[2]

AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Current Treatment Options, Future Trends

June 01, 2000

Dr. Mitsuyasu has been doing clinical research in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, and his review reflects this breadth of experience. It provides a well-rounded and up-to-date assessment of the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of AIDS-related KS that should be a useful guide for practicing physicians.

AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Current Treatment Options, Future Trends

June 01, 2000

In his article, Dr. Mitsuyasu concisely reviews a large body of data concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) in the setting of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As he correctly points out, effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with its consequent improvements in immune function and decrease in production of viral and cytokine cofactors that promote KS growth, has been partly responsible for the decline of KS incidence in areas with ready access to HIV therapy.

Oral Therapy for Colorectal Cancer: How to Choose

June 01, 2000

Damjanov and Meropol review the status of several oral fluoropyrimidine drugs that are currently undergoing clinical testing for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Meta-analysis indicates an 8% improvement in the overall response rate and a survival advantage of 0.8 months with infusional vs bolus fluorouracil (5-FU)-arguably small differences. The incidence of grade 3-4 diarrhea, mucositis, and myelosuppression is < 10% with infusional 5-FU, although hand-foot syndrome is commonly associated with this therapy. The prevailing strategy for the development of oral 5-FU drugs employs multiple daily dosing for periods of 2 to 4 weeks followed by a 1- or 2-week break in order to mimic the protracted infusional schedule.UFT

Eovist Injection and Resovist Injection: Two New Liver-Specific Contrast Agents for MRI

May 31, 2000

In this short review, we describe two new liver-specific contrast agents for MRI that are in clinical development. The main differences among the liver-specific contrast agents available at present are also discussed briefly.

Current Status of Voice Restoration Following Total Laryngectomy

June 01, 2000

Total laryngectomy is the surgical procedure traditionally used to treat patients with advanced-stage cancer of the larynx. The impairments resulting from removal of such a small organ are, indeed, profound. They include

Infectious Complications of Pentostatin Therapy

June 01, 2000

Managing the infectious complications associated with pentostatin (Nipent), used alone or in combination with other agents in patients with low-grade lymphomas, poses a significant problem for clinicians. Since there is limited

Pentostatin and Rituximab in the Treatment of Patients With B-Cell Malignancies

June 01, 2000

Both pentostatin (Nipent) and rituximab (Rituxan) have single-agent activity in B-cell malignancies, including indolent and intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Pentostatin is also active in pretreated patients

CD26 in T-Cell Lymphomas: A Potential Clinical Role?

June 01, 2000

T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases that differ markedly in terms of their clinical behavior and prognosis. In recently developed classification systems, the sites of initial disease

Purine Nucleoside Analogs in Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

June 27, 2000

This article details both the contribution of the purine nucleoside analogs to the current management of relapsed indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and the role of pentostatin (Nipent) in that management. Of the three

Pentostatin Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

June 01, 2000

Mycosis fungoides is an indolent primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that usually progresses from localized skin lesions to systemic disease. Sézary syndrome is a distinct variant characterized by generalized

Hepatic Imaging With Iron Oxide Magnetic Resonance Imaging

June 01, 2000

The management of hepatic tumors presents a challenging problem. The natural history of primary and metastatic liver lesions portends a poor prognosis. However, surgical resection and newer ablative techniques have had a

Oral Therapy for Colorectal Cancer: How to Choose

June 01, 2000

Either alone or in combination with other antineoplastics, fluorouracil (5-FU) has been the mainstay of treatment of gastrointestinal, breast, and head and neck cancers for the past 40 years. Numerous active 5-FU schedules are in

Commentary (Yang): Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Pulmonary Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

June 01, 2000

The criteria for successfully resecting pulmonary metastasis have not changed since they were originally described by Ehrenhaft in 1958.[1] They are (1) that the primary tumor site has been removed without evidence of local recurrence, (2) that no extrathoracic organ metastasis exists, and (3) that pulmonary disease has been completely removed without compromising pulmonary function.

Commentary (Taub): Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Pulmonary Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

June 01, 2000

In their literature survey, Drs. Chao and Goldberg reach the conclusion that surgical metastasectomy is the clear treatment of choice and should be the standard of care for patients with pulmonary recurrences of soft-tissue sarcoma. It is assumed that survival without this operation is negligible, even while there are no survival statistics for sarcoma patients who are eligible for metastasectomy and who choose to forgo this option.

Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Pulmonary Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

June 01, 2000

The lung is the most frequent site of metastasis from soft-tissue sarcomas. Due to the relative resistance of sarcoma to either chemotherapy or radiotherapy, compared to other solid tumors, surgical management of

Commentary (Downey/Ginsberg): Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Pulmonary Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

June 01, 2000

In their article, Chao and Goldberg provide a concise overview of the literature on pulmonary metastasectomy for sarcoma, including a brief history of the procedure, guidelines for preoperative evaluation, conduct of the operation, and probable outcomes achieved. Several points that they review deserve further discussion.

Commentary (Seidman/Kurman): Update on Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors

June 01, 2000

The borderline category of ovarian tumors is one of the most controversial topics in gynecologic oncology and pathology, and is confusing to both clinicians and patients. Although numerous reviews have appeared in the literature, most of them rehash the prevailing views on borderline tumors without critically evaluating the published data that allegedly validate some rather puzzling and perplexing notions. For example, although these tumors are considered to be a subset of carcinoma, most patients are cured even when they have “metastatic” disease that has been inadequately treated. In addition, reports cite recurrence and death as late as 39 years after the diagnosis of tumors that appear histologically bland and noninvasive.

Commentary (Trimble/Trimble): Update on Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors

June 01, 2000

Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) would benefit from a new name, not to mention a deeper understanding of their biology, effective treatment, and a framework within which they can be studied. Fortunately, for a pathologic entity that is poorly understood and also is unresponsive to current therapy, most LMP ovarian tumors carry a benign prognosis.

Update on Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors

June 01, 2000

Low malignant potential (LMP) ovarian tumors represent a small subset of epithelial ovarian cancers that were first identified 70 years ago but were recognized in a systematic way only within the last 30 years. These lesions

Oral Therapy for Colorectal Cancer: How to Choose

June 01, 2000

The article by Damjanov and Meropol elegantly outlines the rationale behind the preclinical development of several potential new oral chemotherapy options for patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and the available data from clinical trials in advanced colorectal cancer that evaluated the activity and safety of these agents. The authors relate the history of fluorinated pyrimidine therapy in colorectal cancer and the pharmacologic challenges to delivering effective oral therapy in a such a way that the chemistry behind the processes becomes readily intelligible. They note that the erratic absorption and blood levels associated with orally administered fluorouracil (5-FU) led to the current approaches to oral therapy.

Diagnostic Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Cirrhotic Liver

June 01, 2000

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the world’s most common cancers. It is closely associated with cirrhosis, especially that due to viral hepatitis. The incidences of viral hepatitis and HCC are rising steadily in the United

AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Current Treatment Options, Future Trends

June 01, 2000

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most common malignancy associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Recent years have witnessed a decline in the overall incidence of AIDS-related KS, as well as a greater

Combination Therapy With Purine Nucleoside Analogs

June 01, 2000

Pentostatin (Nipent) has demonstrated significant activity as a single agent in patients with low-grade B- and T-cell lymphomas, but thus far, clinical experience with combinations of pentostatin and other agents is limited. A study

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Abdomen: Applications in the Oncology Patient

June 27, 2000

Cross-sectional imaging of the abdomen in oncology patients presents unique challenges and opportunities. A close working relationship between the oncologist and radiologist is essential for the exchange of the clinical and