Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, MD, FACP | Authors

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Articles

Why My Neighbor’s Health Is Important to Me

December 01, 2010

This effort has already brought important contributions to countries of low and middle incomes: the basic guidelines, which not only indicate how patients with breast cancer can be treated even with modest resources, but also provide a minimum level of care below which countries, governments and health care systems cannot even pretend that they provide care for women with breast cancer.

Triple–Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer: What We Know and Issues to Be Resolved

October 01, 2008

Carcinomas arising from the breast represent a heterogeneous group of tumors of distinct biologic subtypes that have been shown to be diverse in terms of response to therapy and prognostic outcomes.

Commentary (Green/Hortobagyi): Improvements in Tumor Targeting, Survivorship, and Chemoprevention Pioneered by Tamoxifen

May 01, 2006

Twenty years ago, antiestrogen therapy with tamoxifen played only a secondary role in breast cancer care. All hopes to cure metastatic breast cancer were still pinned on either the discovery of new cytotoxic drugs or a dose-dense combination of available cytotoxic drugs with bone marrow transplantation. A similar strategy with combination chemotherapy was employed as an adjuvant for primary breast cancer. Simply stated, the goal was to kill the cancer with nonspecific cytotoxic drugs while keeping the patient alive with supportive care. However, medical research does not travel in straight lines, and an alternative approach emerged to solve the problem of controlling tumor growth with minimal side effects: targeted therapy. The approach of using long-term antihormone therapy to control early-stage breast cancer growth would revolutionize cancer care by targeting the tumor estrogen receptor (ER). The success of the strategy would contribute to a decrease in the national mortality figures for breast cancer. More importantly, translational research that targeted the tumor ER with a range of new antiestrogenic drugs would presage the current fashion of blocking survival pathways for the tumor by developing novel targeted treatments. But a surprise was in store when the pharmacology of "antiestrogens" was studied in detail: The nonsteroidal "antiestrogens" are selective ER modulators—ie, they are antiestrogens in the breast, estrogens in the bone—and they lower circulating cholesterol levels. This knowledge would establish a practical approach to breast cancer chemoprevention for women at high risk (tamoxifen) and low risk (raloxifene).

Commentary (Fanale/Hortobagyi): Bisphosphonates in the Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases

September 01, 2003

Drs. Ramaswamy and Shapiropresent a timely and comprehensivereview of the potentialuses of bisphosphonates and theirindications in the prevention and treatmentof bone metastasis. The reviewprovides a concise summary of thepathophysiology of skeletal metastasesand describes emerging biologicprinciples that open the door for novel,highly targeted therapeutic interventions.It is generally accepted thatrelative osteoclast hyperactivity resultsin excess bone resorption, which isthe basic process behind bone metastasis,osteoporosis, and hypercalcemiaof malignancy. Osteoprotegerin,the receptor activator of nuclear factor–kappa B (RANK), and the kappa Bligand (RANK-L) have critical rolesin osteoclastogenesis. In addition,parathyroid hormone–related proteinalso plays a major role in osteoblastactivation and production of RANKLas well as terminal osteoclast differentiationand activation.