ONCOLOGY Vol 12 No 8 | Oncology

CD-ROM Helps Cancer Patients Ease the Pain

August 01, 1998

A life with cancer is often a life with pain. But it does not have to be that way.Physicians and award-winning multimedia designers at Michigan State University have developed a new CD-ROM that

University of Pittsburgh Awarded $7.7 Million for Dendritic Cell Research

August 01, 1998

Investigators at the University of Pittsburgh have received a $7.7 million, 5-year award from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to study how dendritic cells participate in: (1) generating immunity against cancer cells, (2) inducing transplant tolerance,

ASCO Experts Discuss Position Statement on Improving End-of-Life Care

August 01, 1998

Leaders of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) discussed the society’s comprehensive position statement calling for the removal of all barriers to high-quality end-of-life care. ASCO’s recommendations include greatly expanded

New PBS Documentary on Living With Cancer Stresses Hope, Treatment Advances, and Survival

August 01, 1998

A new, 1-hour television documentary features conversations with some of the nearly 10 million American cancer survivors. Narrated by Academy Award-winning actress Anne Bancroft and filmed at the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center in Rochester,

UT Southwestern and Komen Foundation Offer Breast Care Fellowship

August 01, 1998

The Center for Breast Care at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation have teamed up to offer a new 1-year fellowship for physicians interested in the multidisciplinary care of breast

Controversies in the Management of Stage I Seminoma

August 01, 1998

Current controversies in the treatment of stage I seminoma center on the relative roles of surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), and adjuvant single-agent chemotherapy. Surveillance has been studied in over 800 patients,

Individualizing Chemotherapy Dosage for Childhood ALL Based on Drug Elimination Rate

August 01, 1998

Individualizing the dosage of cancer chemotherapy can increase survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without causing excessive toxicity, according to a study published in the February 18, 1998, issue of The New

Researchers Identify Biochemically Distinct Pain Phenomena

August 01, 1998

Patients in pain may soon be better treated with fewer side effects using lower morphine doses combined with newer painkillers, according to a study reported by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in the

NSABP Researchers Report on the Tamoxifen Breast Cancer Prevention Trial

August 01, 1998

Researchers from the Pittsburgh-based National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) presented data on the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) during a plenary session of the recent American Society of Clinical Oncology

Grant Will Improve Veterans Access to Latest Clinical Cancer Trials

August 01, 1998

Roger Byhardt, MD, professor of radiation oncology and member of the Cancer Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin, has been named principal investigator of a $355,700 grant to help improve the access of veterans and other military personnel

Leukemia Patients Sought for Participation in Worldwide Trial

August 01, 1998

Two phase III, multicenter clinical trials are seeking patients to participate in studies evaluating PSC 833, an investigational agent,in combating multidrug resistance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. The studies, sponsored by Novartis,

Researchers Describe How Syphilis Increases Transmission of HIV

August 01, 1998

Researchers at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas are offering the first plausible, molecular explanation of the behavior of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in people with syphilis. The virus is transmitted more

Controversies in the Management of Stage I Seminoma

August 01, 1998

Current controversies in the treatment of stage I seminoma center on the relative roles of surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), and adjuvant single-agent chemotherapy. Surveillance has been studied in over 800 patients,

Nutritional Implications of Dental and Swallowing Issues in Head and Neck Cancer

August 01, 1998

Management of patients who have head and neck cancer necessitates a multidisciplinary approach.[1,2] Comprehensive care must be initiated prior to therapy, maintained throughout course of treatment, and systematically coordinated for the rest of the patient’s life. As Dwyer and Minasian note, a multidisciplinary team that includes dental professionals, a speech/language pathologist, and a registered dietician is best suited for this complex management challenge. These individuals, working in conjunction with physicians, nurses, and other professionals, can provide patients with key preventive and therapeutic supportive care interventions.

Nutritional Implications of Dental and Swallowing Issues in Head and Neck Cancer

August 01, 1998

he authors are to be commended for providing an overview of several important, though often overlooked, management issues in head and neck cancer. In their overview of nutrition, they correctly state that the nutritional status of head and neck cancer patients is frequently compromised even before cancer diagnosis and treatment. Documented reasons for this include poor oral hygiene, ill-fitting dentures, and a high incidence of alcoholism.[1] Consequently, it is imperative that patients’ pretreatment nutritional status be determined so that necessary dietary modifications can be made prior to therapy. As the authors emphasize, nutritional reassessment and intervention should continue during and after treatment.

Controversies in the Management of Stage I Seminoma

August 01, 1998

Current controversies in the treatment of stage I seminoma center on the relative roles of surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), and adjuvant single-agent chemotherapy. Surveillance has been studied in over 800 patients,

Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer: Results and Controversies

August 01, 1998

In this excellent article, Dr. Minsky examines the current state of knowledge about adjuvant therapy for resectable rectal cancer, as well as ongoing research in this area. Reasonable recommendations for the management of patients with rectal cancer are made based on data obtained from clinical trials.

Clinical Status and Future Directions of Irinotecan

August 01, 1998

Nearly a decade ago, irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) began clinical development in Japan. Early clinical trials in that country recognized its anti-tumor activity in a variety of advanced malignancies, including stomach, colon, cervical, and lung

Clinical Uses of Radiosurgery

August 01, 1998

Radiosurgery uses stereotactic targeting methods to precisely deliver highly focused, large doses of radiation to small intracranial tumors and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This article reviews the most common

Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer: Results and Controversies

August 01, 1998

Dr. Minsky provides an excellent overview of the current status of adjuvant therapy for patients with rectal cancer. The article includes not only the results of completed randomized and phase II trials but also some of the early toxicity data from ongoing and maturing neoadjuvant trials. Although it would appear that Dr. Minsky’s personal bias favors neoadjuvant combined-modality therapy, he clearly defines gaps in our existing knowledge that will need to be filled in by randomized trials.

Irinotecan in the First-Line Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

August 01, 1998

Irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) is currently approved for use as a second-line agent in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Phase II studies have also shown substantial single-agent activity of irinotecan in the

US Pivotal Studies of Irinotecan in Colorectal Carcinoma

August 01, 1998

Phase I trials of irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]), conducted at Johns Hopkins and the University of Texas, San Antonio, demonstrated some activity in patients with refractory advanced cancer. Three pivotal phase II studies of

Current Status of Therapy for Advanced Gastric Carcinoma

August 01, 1998

Advanced gastric carcinoma remains an incurable disease with a median survival of 6 to 9 months, and available therapeutic approaches are predominantly palliative. In small controlled trials, systemic chemotherapy has

European Experience With Irinotecan Plus Fluorouracil/Folinic Acid or Mitomycin

August 01, 1998

Tremendous progress has been made in the medical treatment of advanced colorectal cancer during the past 2 to 3 years, due to the availability of several new drugs. Of these new agents, irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) seems

Rational Design of Irinotecan Administration Based on Preclinical Models

August 01, 1998

Most clinical drug regimens for irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) have been empirically based on classic in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. We propose an alternative approach that attempts to

Alternative Dosing Schedules for Irinotecan

August 01, 1998

Most of the clinical experience with irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) has been with either a weekly or an every-3-week schedule. Recent phase I trials have explored new routes and schedules of administration. One approach

Irinotecan: Toward Clinical End Points in Drug Development

August 01, 1998

The objective response rate is the initial method to assess the activity of a novel anticancer agent. Response rates may not characterize a new agent’s clinical benefit, however, especially if moderate to severe toxicity may be

Controversies in the Management of Stage I Seminoma

August 01, 1998

Current controversies in the treatment of stage I seminoma center on the relative roles of surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), and adjuvant single-agent chemotherapy. Surveillance has been studied in over 800 patients,

Camptothecin Radiation Sensitization: Mechanisms, Schedules, and Timing

August 01, 1998

Based on high tumoricidal activity of the camptothecin analogs topotecan (Hycamtin), irinotecan (CPT-11[Camptosar]), and 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) in preclinical studies, clinical trials began testing these agents

Predisposition Testing for Inherited Breast Cancer

August 01, 1998

Predisposition testing (ie, genetic testing that provides information about a person’s susceptibility to disease) is now available for several inherited forms of cancer. Individuals who are found to have an altered gene (eg, a

Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer: Results and Controversies

August 01, 1998

During the past decade, advances have been made in the adjuvant treatment of resectable rectal cancer. Postoperative combined-modality therapy significantly improves local control and survival. Recent Intergroup

Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Irinotecan

August 01, 1998

Irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) is an important new chemotherapeutic drug that demonstrates activity against a broad spectrum of malignancies, including carcinomas of the colon, stomach, and lung. Unfortunately, frequent and

Irinotecan in Cervical Cancer

August 01, 1998

Several studies have evaluated the use of irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]), a topoisomerase inhibitor, in the treatment of refractory or recurrent cervical cancer. Various schedules have been used. Response rates have

Irinotecan: A Review of the Initial Phase I Trials

August 01, 1998

The unique mechanism of action of irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]), topoisomerase I inhibition, together with the results of preclinical studies, suggest that the drug’s antitumor and toxicologic effects may be schedule-dependent.

Irinotecan and Cisplatin in Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies

August 01, 1998

Irinotecan (Camptosar), an active agent in the treatment of fluorouracil-refractory colorectal cancer, has antitumor activity in upper gastrointestinal cancers. Clinical trials from Japan indicate antitumor responses in gastric and

Irinotecan Plus 5-FU and Leucovorin in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: North American Trials

August 06, 1998

Both fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) have shown activity in metastatic colorectal cancer and are approved for its treatment in the United States. Preclinical experiments in cell cultures and human tumor

Nutritional Implications of Dental and Swallowing Issues in Head and Neck Cancer

August 01, 1998

Tumors of the head and neck account for 4% of cancers in the United States. Both the disease process itself and side effects of cancer treatment, such as xerostomia, dysphagia, and malnutrition, compromise oral health,

Irinotecan Plus Cisplatin in Patients With Advanced Non- Small-Cell Lung Cancer

August 01, 1998

During the 1980s, platinum-based regimens were yielding response rates typically less than 25%, median survival durations of about 25 weeks, and 1-year survival rates less than 25% in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung

Extending Principles Learned in Model Systems to Clinical Trials Design

August 01, 1998

Clinical results with irinotecan (CPT-11 [Camptosar]) and other camptothecin derivatives in various cancers, although encouraging, have fallen short of the expectations predicted by preclinical models. One proposed

Simple Saliva Test May Detect Early Cancer

August 01, 1998

An ideal diagnostic test for cancer would be noninvasive and provide accurate results with sufficient specificity and sensitivity. Currently, no test for cancer meets all of these criteria. However, results of a study presented at the annual meeting of the

Researchers Developing Less Toxic Therapy to Target Breast Cancer Cells

August 01, 1998

University of California, San Francisco, researchers have received approval from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop a less toxic breast cancer therapy that may also prove to be more efficient at directly targeting cancer cells.

Predisposition Testing for Inherited Breast Cancer

August 01, 1998

Predisposition testing (ie, genetic testing that provides information about a person’s susceptibility to disease) is now available for several inherited forms of cancer. Individuals who are found to have an altered gene (eg, a

Clinical Uses of Radiosurgery

August 01, 1998

Radiosurgery uses stereotactic targeting methods to precisely deliver highly focused, large doses of radiation to small intracranial tumors and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This article reviews the most common