ONCOLOGY Vol 13 No 7 | Oncology

Discussing Disease Progression and End-of-Life Decisions

July 01, 1999

Few of us enjoy performing a task if we feel that we are not very good at it. Furthermore, the simpler the task appears to be, the more embarrassed we feel about our perceived lack of ability. As a result, we tend to avoid the whole situation

Chemotherapy Combination Shows Efficacy in Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

July 01, 1999

Docetaxel (Taxotere) combined with estramustine phosphate (Emcyt) and low-dose hydrocortisone appears to be a promising treatment for men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, according to the results of a phase II trial conducted

New Genetic Mechanism Associated With Thyroid-Related Diseases

July 01, 1999

In the course of a cancer-related study, researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center stumbled upon an important genetic mechanism that may help in the treatment of two rare thyroid diseases.

Beyond 5-Fluorouracil

July 01, 1999

Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most extensively investigated chemotherapy agents in medical oncology. Generations of medical oncologists have equated this agent with the optimal treatment of colorectal cancer, both in the advanced and

Moderate-Dose External Radiation Plus Implants Increase Survival in Cervical Cancer

July 01, 1999

Standard radiation therapy for patients with latestage cervical cancer (stage IIIB) should be adjusted so that each patient receives moderate doses of external-beam radiation therapy plus radioactive implants, according to a study led by Dr. Mark

Cigarette Consumption in Oregon Declines After Implementation of Comprehensive Prevention Program

July 01, 1999

In November 1996, residents of Oregon approved a $0.30 increase in the cigarette tax (to $0.68 per pack). The measure stipulated that 10% of the additional tax revenue be allocated to the Oregon Health Division to develop and implement a

Breast Cancer Survivors Under 50 Years Old Are at High Risk for Ovarian Cancer

July 01, 1999

Some factors that lead to the development of breast cancer are similar to those responsible for the development of ovarian cancer, say the authors of a new study. Consequently, women who survive breast cancer, especially those under the age of

Nonsurgical Therapy Holds Promise for Basal Cell Carcinoma

July 01, 1999

A pharmaceutical treatment may offer patients an alternative to the usual surgical removal of basal cell carcinomas, according to a presentation at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology in New Orleans. The results

Photodynamic Therapy Effective for Swallowing Problems

July 01, 1999

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) relieves swallowing problems associated with esophageal cancer in the majority of patients treated, according to a study conducted from November 1996 to June 1998 at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.

Novel Gene Therapy to Clear Blood Clots in Leg Arteries

July 01, 1999

Stanford researchers have devised a novel approach for delivering a clot-busting gene to blocked leg arteries in animals, effectively restoring blood flow to the damaged vessels, according to a new study presented at the 24th scientific meeting of

Bills Would Require Private Insurers to Pay for Cancer Screening

July 01, 1999

Members of Congress are trying to assure coverage of cancer screening tests under private insurance plans that Congress equired Medicare to cover as part of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. Reps. Carolyn Maloney (D-N.Y.) and

Discussing Disease Progression and End-of-Life Decisions

July 01, 1999

The physician-patient relationship is based on effective communication. In oncology, higher expectations for communication are driven by increased media attention to cancer, patient-directed pharmaceutical advertising, and

Women Who Smoke Menthol Cigarettes Have Greater Nicotine Exposure

July 01, 1999

New research shows that women who smoke menthol cigarettes may be more likely to inhale deeper and potentially inhale more nicotine than do smokers of nonmenthol cigarettes. The study also showed that menthol cigarette smokers tend to have

The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orzel/UFT Investigators’s Workshop and Consensus Conference

July 01, 1999

Because of the absence of severe toxicities, UFT plus oral leucovorin is an optimal candidate for combination chemotherapy regimens. Its excellent acceptance by patients and well-tolerated safety profile make it a potential therapy for patients with poor performance status or patients who have been extensively pretreated

Carcinoma of the Thyroid

July 01, 1999

Carcinoma of the Thyroid is the first edition of a text dedicated to the anatomy, physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of thyroid malignancy. The book is written in a fairly uniform format, with 17 chapters contributed either by one of the editors or

Possible Interactions Between Dietary Antioxidants and Chemotherapy

July 01, 1999

The use of alternative therapies in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy is a potentially important clinical issue. Most patients assume that alternative therapies are harmless since they are “not drugs” and, thus, do not have an established

Total-Body Irradiation for Bone Marrow Transplantation

July 01, 1999

Total-body irradiation (TBI), when given as part of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), works by enhancing immune suppression and by exerting a tumoricidal effect. The modality has been made less toxic because of new approaches to

Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleural Space

July 01, 1999

The article by Drs. Grondin and Sugarbaker discussing the clinical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma provides an excellent overview but also highlights many of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of this difficult

Possible Interactions Between Dietary Antioxidants and Chemotherapy

July 01, 1999

The use of alternative therapies among cancer patients has increased dramatically since the 1970s. A recent review of published surveys found that anywhere from 7% to 64% of adult cancer patients were using such therapies.[1] Preliminary

Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleural Space

July 01, 1999

Grondin and Sugarbaker provide an excellent, thorough review of malignant pleural mesotheliomas. Nearly 3,000 new mesotheliomas will be diagnosed in the United States this year. On the positive side, epidemiologists estimate that workplace

Schedule Dependency of 5-Fluorouracil

July 01, 1999

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is cell-cycle specific for its cytotoxicity and has a pharmacokinetic profile characterized by a short, single-dose half-life of 10 to 20 minutes in plasma. Efforts to maximize its clinical efficacy have been

Oxaliplatin and UFT/Oral Calcium Folinate for Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma

July 01, 1999

Oxaliplatin is a unique platinum compound with single-agent activity in both chemotherapy-naïve colorectal cancer patients and patients who progressed on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The combination of oxaliplatin and 5-FU

Epirubicin, Cisplatin, Oral UFT, and Calcium Folinate in Advanced Gastric Carcinoma

July 01, 1999

UFT (uracil and tegafur in a 4:1 molar ratio) plus calcium folinate treatment has favorable activity and tolerable toxicity in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. High response rates have been reported in patients with

Possible Interactions Between Dietary Antioxidants and Chemotherapy

July 01, 1999

Many patients treat themselves with oral antioxidants and other alternative therapies during chemotherapy, frequently without advising their conventional health care provider. No definitive studies have demonstrated

Gemcitabine and UFT Plus Oral Calcium Folinate: Phase I Study

July 01, 1999

Gemcitabine (Gemzar) (2-deoxy-2,2-difluorocytidine) is a new antimetabolite being increasingly used in the treatment of solid tumors. It is an analog of deoxycytidine and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) (Figure 1) that has shown significant activity

Preoperative UFT and Calcium Folinate and Radiotherapy in Rectal Cancer

July 01, 1999

Protracted infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with pelvic radiotherapy have been associated with improved survival and decreased local and distant metastases in the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer. However,

UFT Plus Calcium Folinate vs 5-FU Plus Calcium Folinate in Colon Cancer

July 01, 1999

Adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to alter the natural history of resected colon cancer. Two regimens (5-fluorouracil [5-FU] plus calcium folinate and 5-FU plus levamisole [Ergamisol]) have been found to prolong

UFT in Bladder Cancer

July 01, 1999

UFT, a compound containing uracil and tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) in a 4:1 molar ratio, has been used in Japan for the treatment of and as adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer. In phase II studies, 300 to 600

UFT/Oral Calcium Folinate Plus Weekly Paclitaxel for Metastatic Breast Cancer

July 01, 1999

Paclitaxel (Taxol) is one of the most active drugs in the treatment of ovarian and breast cancers. Combination therapy with paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) exhibits high activity in anthracycline-pretreated breast cancer,

Clinical Implications of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Inhibition

July 01, 1997

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial, rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). DPD has an important role in regulating the availability of 5-FU for anabolism. It is now clear that DPD also

Paclitaxel, UFT, and Calcium Folinate in Metastatic Breast Cancer

July 01, 1999

This is a phase I dose-escalation study of uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) administered in combination with calcium folinate and paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. This trial was initiated to 1)

Impact of Uracil/Tegafur Plus Oral Calcium Folinate on Resource Utilization

July 01, 1999

Data from a multinational phase III trial were analyzed to evaluate the use of in- and outpatient services for 373 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer being administered uracil/tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) plus

Clinical Implications of 5-FU Modulation

July 01, 1999

In recent years, due to the advent of sensitive instrumentation and methodologies, it has been possible to identify parameters that predict the quality of response of individual patients to treatments for specific selected diseases,

Toxicity of 5-Fluorouracil

July 01, 1999

Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a relatively unique drug in oncology because administration in different doses and schedules results in dramatically different patterns of qualitative toxicity. In the 41 years 5-FU has been

UFT/Calcium Folinate Plus Weekly Paclitaxel for Solid Tumors

July 01, 1999

Since cancer is incurable in many patients, palliation of symptoms and quality-of-life issues are important aspects of therapy. Uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus calcium folinate are the components of the oral agent known

Uracil/Tegafur Plus Oral Calcium Folinate in Advanced Breast Cancer

July 01, 1999

Uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) has proven activity against breast cancer and is delivered in an easy-to-administer oral formulation. Orzel, which combines UFT with the oral biomodulator, calcium folinate, may

UFT and Mitomycin Plus Tamoxifen for Stage II, ER-Positive Breast Cancer

July 01, 1999

A trial was designed to examine the combination of UFT and mitomycin (Mutamycin) plus tamoxifen (Nolvadex) as postoperative adjuvant therapy in the treatment of patients with stage II, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive

Adjuvant Postoperative Combined-Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer

July 01, 1999

A number of advances have been made in the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable rectal cancer. Whereas pelvic radiation therapy has been shown to increase local control in patients with clinically resectable

Discussing Disease Progression and End-of-Life Decisions

July 01, 1999

Because most patients now want to know the truth about their diagnosis and prognosis, the ability to discuss the cancer diagnosis, disease recurrence, or treatment failure, and to solicit patients’ views about resuscitation

Endocrine Plus Uracil/Tegafur Therapy for Prostate Cancer

July 01, 1999

A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of endocrine chemotherapy with uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) in patients with prostate cancer. The study included two

UFT Plus Oral Calcium Folinate/Vinorelbine for Advanced Breast Cancer

July 01, 1999

This phase I study was undertaken to define the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity, and recommended dosage of UFT (uracil and tegafur) plus oral calcium folinate (Orzel) and vinorelbine (Navelbine) in

Rising PSA After Local Therapy Failure: Immediate vs Deferred Treatment

July 01, 1999

Dr. Moul has done a wonderful job of outlining the scope and magnitude of the “phenomenon” of patients found to have a progressively rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after potentially curative local treatment for prostate cancer. His

Rising PSA After Local Therapy Failure: Immediate vs Deferred Treatment

July 01, 1999

Dr. Moul discusses one of the most contemporary yet contrversial topics in prostate cancer-namely, a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after the failure of local therapy. The way in which patients with advanced prostate cancer present

Rising PSA After Local Therapy Failure: Immediate vs Deferred Treatment

July 01, 1999

Patients whose only sign of recurrence after local therapy for prostate cancer is a rising prostate-specific antigen level (PSA-only recurrence) have become more common. We have developed two models to predict PSA-only

UFT Plus or Minus Calcium Folinate for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Older Patients

July 01, 1999

Two studies were carried out to determine the activity and evaluate the toxicity of oral chemotherapy with uracil and tegafur in a 4:1 molar ratio (UFT) plus or minus calcium folinate in elderly patients with advanced colorectal

Commentary (Bashir): Management of Brain Metastases

July 01, 1999

The article by Wen and Loeffler provides a comprehensive, timely, well-written review of the management of cerebral metastases. Both older studies and more recent reports on advances in the surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic

Management of Brain Metastases

July 01, 1999

Brain metastases are the most common type of brain tumor in adults and are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In recent years, important advances have been made in the diagnosis

Discussing Disease Progression and End-of-Life Decisions

July 01, 1999

As mental health professionals become integral members of the treatment team in many oncology settings,[1] we often find ourselves itching to guide and comfort our medical colleagues instead of our patients. Sometimes we have to intervene

STAR Clinical Trial Controversial Among Some Advocacy Groups

July 01, 1999

The NCI brushed aside the concerns of some cancer advocacy groups and decided to begin the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR),expected to be one of the largest breast cancer prevention trials ever. Raloxifene (Evista) was approved

UFT/Oral Calcium Folinate Plus Radiation in Pancreatic Cancer

July 01, 1999

A phase I, single-center, open-label, dose-escalation study (University of Alabama [UAB] 9614) has been undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and safety of uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) plus oral

UFT Plus Calcium Folinate Plus Radiotherapy for Recurrent Rectal Cancer

July 01, 1999

Uracil and tegafur (in a molar ratio of 4:1 [UFT]) plus calcium folinate comprise the components of the oral agent, Orzel, which appears to have activity comparable to intravenously administered 5-fluorouracil. This article

Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleural Space

July 01, 1999

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor associated with exposure to asbestos. Although this disease is rare, with an annual incidence in the United States of 2,000 to 3,000 cases, a steady rise in cases has

Commentary (Shapiro): Management of Brain Metastases

July 01, 1999

Drs. Wen and Loeffler present a scholarly review of the management of brain metastases. They correctly note the high frequency of the brain as a site of metastasis and the fact that, overall, there are more metastatic than primary brain tumors.