ONCOLOGY Vol 15 No 1 | Oncology

FDA Approves Arsenic Trioxide for Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

January 01, 2001

The injectable form of arsenic trioxide (Trisenox) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with a severe form of leukemia-acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-whose disease has recurred or who have failed to respond to standard therapy.

High-Fat Diet Not Associated With Increased Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women

January 01, 2001

There is no evidence that a high-fat diet predisposes older women to breast cancer, report researchers from Harvard Medical School. It has long been thought that dietary fat can increase production of sex hormones, including estrogen, and

Screening With the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test-Texas, 1997

January 01, 2001

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in Texas. From 1990 to 1997, the average annual number of prostate cancer-related deaths in Texas was 1900, and the average annual death rate was 20.9 per

Book Review: Lung Cancer Therapy Annual 2000

January 01, 2001

In an era of information "overload" for the practicing oncologist, keeping up with the latest therapies for the many distinct clinical scenarios that arise in daily practice can be quite a challenge. Thus, a concise synthesis of the current knowledge in a field, such as provided in Lung Cancer Therapy Annual 2000 by Drs. Heine Hansen and Paul Bunn, can be quite useful. These authors, whose clinical expertise and contributions to lung cancer therapy are internationally acknowledged, offer a complete review of the literature pertaining to lung cancer therapy from the year 1999, including a review of abstracts from major meetings. A brief summary is provided at the end, outlining standard, accepted strategies based on histologic and stage-by-stage criteria. This text serves as a reference that summarizes the major existing literature, evaluates the strength of the evidence, and makes reasonable recommendations on how to proceed with clinical care.

Medicare Backtracks Further on Average Wholesale Prices

January 01, 2001

Medicare payment for chemotherapy administration has been a controversial issue beyond accurate practice expense RVUs; a more inflammatory side of the story involves the cuts in payments to oncologists for drugs they purchase and then administer in their office.

Lung Cancer Vaccine Demonstrates Enhanced Antitumor Immunity

January 01, 2001

Ravi Salgia, MD, PhD, and colleagues at Dana-Farber Cancer Center presented an encouraging follow-up report on an initial clinical trial of Cell Genesys’ GVAX lung cancer vaccine at the Ninth World Conference on Lung Cancer in Tokyo,

Perspectives on Fluorinated Pyrimidine Use in Gastrointestinal and Breast Oncology

January 02, 2001

During this symposium, faculty participated in a roundtable discussion of the relative merits and weaknesses associated with use of the fluorinated pyrimidines. Dehydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency and the impact of this deficiency on

Minimally Invasive Approach to Esophagectomy May Decrease Morbidity

January 01, 2001

Minimally invasive surgery for esophagectomy may lower the morbidity often associated with open esophagectomy, according to a study conducted by surgeons at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and published in the September

Oxaliplatin Improves Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

January 01, 2001

Ateam of European researchers recently reported that the addition of oxaliplatin to the standard regimen for advanced colorectal cancer of fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin doubled the response to therapy and significantly prolonged progression-free survival, compared to leucovorin and 5-FU alone.

Breast Cancer During Pregnancy

January 01, 2001

The care of a pregnant breast cancer patient is a challenging clinical situation that historically has placed the welfare of the mother in conflict with that of the fetus. For the woman in this situation, the emotions usually

Maintenance Therapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer

January 01, 2001

Transurethral resection remains the standard for first-line treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This technique clearly defines the pathologic grade and is essential in determining the clinical stage of

Perspectives on the Use of Fluorinated Pyrimidines

January 02, 2001

The fluorinated pyrimidines, in particular 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are among the oldest cytotoxic agents still in broad use today. To some degree, this continued use of 5-FU is a bit of an embarrassment to those of us who spend considerable amounts of

Commentary (Overmoyer): Breast Cancer During Pregnancy

January 01, 2001

The care of a pregnant breast cancer patient is a challenging clinical situation that historically has placed the welfare of the mother in conflict with that of the fetus. For the woman in this situation, the emotions usually

Maintenance Therapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer

January 01, 2001

Transurethral resection remains the standard for first-line treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This technique clearly defines the pathologic grade and is essential in determining the clinical stage of

Current Management of Opioid-Related Side Effects

January 01, 2001

The optimal management of opioid-related side effects is hampered by a lack of comparative studies of management strategies. The prevalence of such side effects is influenced by the extent of disease, the patient’s

Maintenance Therapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer

January 01, 2001

Transurethral resection remains the standard for first-line treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This technique clearly defines the pathologic grade and is essential in determining the clinical stage of

Current Management of Opioid-Related Side Effects

January 01, 2001

The optimal management of opioid-related side effects is hampered by a lack of comparative studies of management strategies. The prevalence of such side effects is influenced by the extent of disease, the patient’s

Current Management of Opioid-Related Side Effects

January 01, 2001

The optimal management of opioid-related side effects is hampered by a lack of comparative studies of management strategies. The prevalence of such side effects is influenced by the extent of disease, the patient’s

Current Management of Opioid-Related Side Effects

January 01, 2001

The optimal management of opioid-related side effects is hampered by a lack of comparative studies of management strategies. The prevalence of such side effects is influenced by the extent of disease, the patient’s

Nursing Strategies for Patients on Oral Chemotherapy

January 02, 2001

Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in educating the cancer patient who is about to commence oral chemotherapy. Increasing numbers of patients are receiving oral chemotherapy at home, and with this move to oral self-

Irinotecan in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The US Experience

January 01, 2001

There will be approximately 40,000 new cases of small-cell lung cancer this year. Prior to 1990, there were several agents with single-agent response rates of 30% to nearly 90% in the untreated small-cell lung cancer population

Capecitabine in Colorectal Cancer

January 02, 2001

Capecitabine (Xeloda) is the first orally available fluoropyrimidine approved for use in patients with cancer. It was initially approved for use in metastatic breast cancer, but significant data also support its use in the management

New State of the Art in Small-Cell Lung Cancer

January 01, 2001

Chemotherapy is currently the main treatment for all stages of small-cell lung cancer. In extensive disease, etoposide/cisplatin (Platinol) is standard treatment, and in limited disease, etoposide/cisplatin with early concurrent

Current Status of Irinotecan in Lung Cancer

January 01, 2001

Survival in lung cancer patients has not improved over the past 2 decades. Irinotecan (Camptosar, CPT-11), a semisynthetic analog of the quinoline-based alkaloid camptothecin, is one of several new drugs that have demonstrated promising activity in the treatment of lung cancer in recent years. This article gives a brief overview of the mechanism, development history, and current uses of this agent. [ONCOLOGY 15(Suppl 1):6-7, 2001]

UFT in the Treatment of Colorectal and Breast Cancer

January 02, 2001

UFT and leucovorin (Orzel) is a combination of tegafur and uracil in a molar ratio of 1:4. Tegafur, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is converted to 5-FU by the hepatic cytochrome P450 pathway, whereas uracil enhances the

Maintenance Therapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer

January 01, 2001

Transurethral resection remains the standard for first-line treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This technique clearly defines the pathologic grade and is essential in determining the clinical stage of

Biochemical Modulation of 5-FU in Systemic Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer

January 02, 2001

Randomized studies have tested a variety of strategies to improve the activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer patients. Results from 14 randomized trials comparing 5-FU administered via intravenous ( IV) bolus either

Clinical Status of Capecitabine in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

January 02, 2001

New treatment strategies for advanced breast cancer have focused on both the development of new molecular targets in breast cancer cells, as well as improving the therapeutic index of presently available therapy. The

Establishment of the Standard Regimen for Non-Small- Cell Lung Cancer in Japan

January 01, 2001

Preclinical data suggest that irinotecan (Camptosar, CPT-11), a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, has exhibited promising activity in the treatment of lung cancer. In a phase II study of non-small-cell lung cancer, irinotecan

Patient Selection for Oral Chemotherapy

January 02, 2001

Oral chemotherapy has evolved with several new agents such as capecitabine, UFT, eniluracil, etc. in active clinical trials or already approved for use in the western world. Several distinct issues, apart from the usual criteria

Docetaxel Followed by Gemcitabine and Irinotecan in Solid Tumors

January 01, 2001

Docetaxel (Taxotere), gemcitabine (Gemzar), and irinotecan (Camptosar, CPT-11) are active single agents in a variety of solid tumors. In combination, synergism may be schedule dependent. Preclinical studies suggested

Other Fluorinated Pyrimidines in the Treatment of Solid Tumors

January 02, 2001

Researchers, primarily in Japan, Europe, and the United States, have evaluated several new fluorinated pyrimidines in recent years. Most of these drugs are orally active prodrugs of fluorouracil (5-FU), and some also

Clinical Implications of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase on 5-FU Pharmacology

January 02, 2001

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), accounting for catabolism of over 85% of an administered dose of 5-FU. DPD plays an important role in

Commentary (Danforth): Breast Cancer During Pregnancy

January 01, 2001

The care of a pregnant breast cancer patient is a challenging clinical situation that historically has placed the welfare of the mother in conflict with that of the fetus. For the woman in this situation, the emotions usually

The Biology and Treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

January 01, 2001

Over the past 2 decades, our understanding of the pathobiological events underlying chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has grown. At the same time, effective transplant and nontransplant treatment approaches to

Irinotecan: Summary and Future Directions

January 01, 2001

The quest for new, active chemotherapy regimens for lung cancer is an ongoing, dynamic process that has become more challenging in the past 10 years due to the increased number of "active" agents.

Medicare Fee Increase

January 01, 2001

Oncologists will get an average 6% increase from Medicare in calendar 2001. That puts them about midway amongst specialists, with optometrists getting a 12% hike and gastroenterologists coming out with a big goose egg.

Oral Fluoropyrimidine-Based Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

January 02, 2001

Significant emphasis has been placed recently on designing more effective fluorouracil (5-FU)-based combination protocols for gastrointestinal cancer. Promising results were seen with 5-FU/leucovorin in combination with

Oral Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: Some Economic Considerations

January 02, 2001

In the formal medical curriculum, little has been provided to prepare the clinician for an understanding of the economics of health care. The questions are often far more complicated than they initially appear to be, and the